general report from RECSAM

SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION

Indonesian government set up policies and programmes to increase the education quality including the teachers. One of the programmes is by sending the mathematics and science teachers to Regional Centre for Education in Science and Mathematics (RECSAM), Southeast Asian Ministries of Education Organization (SEAMEO), Malaysia.
The Regional Centre for Education in Science and Mathematics (RECSAM) Southeast Asian Ministries of Education Organization (SEAMEO) has mandated to provide needs of its member countries in the development and enhancement to expertise in science and mathematics education since 1967. For these purposes, SEAMEO RECSAM conducts many activities within four main areas, namely: training, research and development, consultancy work, and conducting conferences, seminars and workshops pertaining to science and mathematics education. Beside regular programme of training courses, there are customised courses to respond special needs of member countries.
Indonesian government sent 30 selected and qualified teachers (16 science teachers and 14 mathematics teachers) to participate in a customised programme at SEAMEO RECSAM from 7 November until 4 December 2009. The course focuses on Classroom Action Research (CAR) for math and science secondary school. The participants were also joining the International COSMED (Conference Science and Mathematics Education) that was held from 10 – 12 November 2009 at RECSAM.

RATIONALE
The CAR is very important in teaching and learning processes. All selected teachers were trained in customized courses RECSAM. This customized course is aimed to enhance teachers’ skill and knowledge and gain new learning process that can be implemented in their classrooms.

OBJECTIVE
This program is aimed to improve professionalism of all secondary mathematics and science teachers especially from SBI schools. The teachers are expected for acquire knowledge and skill in designing and doing classroom action research.
Course topic included:
1. Trend and Issues in Science and Mathematics Education (CoSMEd session)
2. Sharing the finding
3. ICT based teaching in Science and Mathematics
4. Classroom management
5. Problem based learning
6. Reflection in teaching
7. Multiplier Effect in teaching learning
8. Student research on-line
9. Research problem
10. Data collection method
11. Developing action plan
12. Qualitative data analysis
13. Quantitative data analysis
14. Writing Action Research report
15. School visit to Putra Jaya SMART School
16. English Clinic Class

SECTION 2
COURSE ACTIVITIES

2.1 GENERAL ACTIVITIES
2.1.1 The First Week Activities
The participants’ activities in RECSAM were started on Monday, 9 November 2009 by following the opening ceremony which was held in RECSAM Auditorium. The ceremony began with a brief introduction and history of RECSAM and its programme presented by Dr. Azian T. S Abdullah as the Centre Director of RECSAM who officially opened the course programme. The ceremony was also attended by RECSAM’s staff including the course facilitators. In this session, the participants also had a change to introduce them and delivered their expectation about the course programme. After the ceremony, the participants were invited for refreshment in Mutiara Lounge before they had an admin briefing session conducted by Haji Ahmad B. Ramli as RECSAM’s HoD, Administration Division. The participants also had a brief introduction from Ms. Jillian about Internexia, a language centre in RECSAM which facilitated the English Clinic programme. The activities were continued by a pre-test conducted by Dr. Wahyudi as the course supervisor and assisted by Mr. Kyaw Ahr Kar Nyunt. The purpose of the pre-test was to know the participants’ prior knowledge about CAR and the use of ICT in teaching and learning process including GeoGebra and WebQuest. The next activity was an English Proficiency Test which had to follow by each participant before joining the English Clinic. The participants were divided into two groups, Science and Mathematics, although the materials given were the same. The programme for Mathematics group was held on Monday and Wednesday while for the Science group were held on Tuesday and Thursday at 5 pm. During the first week, the materials given in the programme were preposition. The English Clinic sessions were fun because the participants could learn English through games and other fun activity, besides Ms. Jillian herself is a friendly and enthusiastic teacher.

INTERNATIONAL CONFERECE ON SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS EDUCATION (CoSMEd) 2009
The participants’ activities for the next three days in the first week were attending the CoSMEd sessions. CoSMEd is an International Conference on Science and Mathematics Education hosted by SEAMEO RECSAM which is held once in every two years. The 2009 CoSMEd was the third CoSMEd which focused on Improving Science and Mathematics Literacy: Theory, Innovation and Practice. The conference was attended by education practitioners from 17 countries including Indonesia who shared the research which they had done in education field. Two keynote sessions and three plenary sessions were also performed in the conference. The keynote speakers were Prof. Dr. Kaye Stacey from Melbourne Graduate School of Education, University of Melbourne, Australia. and Prof. Dr. David Treagust from Science and Mathematics Education Centre, Curtin University of Technology, Australia, whereas the plenary sessions’ speakers were Prof. Dr. Pairash Thajchayapong from NSTDA Ministry of Science and Technology, Thailand; Prof. Dr. Lilia Halim from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia and Asst. Prof. Dr. Yeap Ban Har from NIE, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Some presenters from Indonesia were Dr. Wanty Widjaja from Sanata Dharma University Jogjakarta and Prof. Dr. Herawati Susilo from Malang State University. The conference was opened in a ceremony led by Dr. Azian T.S Abdullah, followed by a science demonstration by Petrosains called “The Cool Chemistry Show” and then the presentation by Prof. Dr. Kaye Stacey. After these sessions, the CoSMEd participants attended the parallel sessions which were divided into 24 sessions and held in 6 rooms. There were total 137 parallel sessions and 9 workshops during the CoSMEd. Each course participants had to make summaries from 5 published papers in the proceeding as an assignment. The schedule of the parallel sessions and the title of the presented papers can be found in the appendices of this report. Joining CoSMEd was a valuable experience for the course participants since they obtained lots of new knowledge such as educational research carried out in other countries in which some of it could also be implemented in the participants’ school. The participants also improved their English through CoSMEd since all papers were presented in English.
On the first day of the CoSMEd, the participants including the course participants from Indonesia were invited to join the CoSMEd Banquet Dinner held in Traders Hotel. The participants were entertained by several Malaysian traditional dance and music performed by a group of dancers and musicians. One of the Indonesian participants, Ms. Maja Erliani Rihi from SMP 1 Kedamean Gresik was also performed a song, Mencintaimu, which is popularised by Krisdayanti.
On Friday, 13 November 2009, the activity for the whole day was ICT based teaching in Mathematics and Science. The session for mathematics group was conducted by Dr. Allan L. White from University of Western Sidney, Australia who introduced GeoGebra software as the media of teaching Mathematics especially in Geometry and Algebra. The session for science group was conducted by Mr. Devadason Robert Peter who introduced Eureka and PHET (Physics Educational Technology) for teaching science. The further explanations of these sessions were described in the activity report of each group.

KUALA LUMPUR (KL) TRIP
The participants’ activities in the first week were followed by a trip to Kuala Lumpur from Saturday, 14 November 2009 until Monday, 16 November 2009. This trip was conducted by Dr. Wahyudi as the course supervisor and also Ms. Jenny Ong from RECSAM. Also joined in the trip were Dr. Wahyudi’s wife, Ms. Jenny’s husband and also 3 Indonesian people from Bandung, West Java. The trip from Penang to KL was using a bus started on Saturday morning. The trip was guided by a tour guide who was called “Pak Cik Ismail” by the participants. To reach KL, the bus passed the Penang Bridge which connected the Penang Mainland and the other region. The bus stopped once in one stop along the highway so that the participants could have a breakfast. The journey of Penang – KL was last for 4 hours.
The first place visited after having lunch was Petrosains which located on the 4th floor of Suria KLCC. Petrosains is a place which presents the technology into a family entertainment. It is part of Petronas, the Malaysia Petroleum Company. Some features that can be found in Petrosains were mathematics and science models, miniature of Jurassic Era and helicopter simulation which take the passengers on a journey to the other part of Petrosains which is designed like the real Petronas oil field.
The next place visited was Aquaria KLCC, the Malaysian Sea World. There are many beautiful sea species that can be found there. The visitors could also watch the piranha feeding sessions which is only done once in a day.
At 05.30 pm the participants arrived in Cititel Express Hotel which is near to KLCC. From many rooms in this hotel, the famous Petronas Twin Towers and KL beautifully sight especially in the night could be seen. Some of the participants also tried to ride Monorail Train, one of the transportation vehicles in KL.
On the second day, the participants were taken around KL. The first place visited that day was the Prime Minister’s Palace. The visitors could take pictures with the palace guards who rode a horse although they were not allowed to enter the palace. The participants also visited Merdeka Square and India Mosque before proceeding to Twin Towers to ride the Sky Bridge which connected the two towers. Before going back to the hotel, the participants were taken to Times Square, one of the shopping centres in KL.

2.1.2 The Second Week Activities
On Monday, 16 November 2009, the third day of Kuala Lumpur trip, we visited MDeC (Multimedia Development Centre) which is located in Putrajaya area, a planned city in south Kuala Lumpur as federal administrative centre of Malaysia. The seat of government was shifted in 1999 from Kuala Lumpur due to overcrowding and congestion and Kuala Lumpur remains as Malaysia’s national capital, commercial and financial centre. Putrajaya is home of multinational companies in venture of Information and Communications Technology, the government’s Multimedia Systems Corridor (MSC) Malaysia, The Multimedia Development Centre (MDeC) and the SMART Schools. Unfortunately we could not visit the Putrajaya SMART School because the school had its semester examination. Then we continued our journey to Botanical Putrajaya Park where we observed various plants. We found a rich flora which includes palms, herbs, ferns, orchid, rose, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, lianas, etc. After lunch, all participants continued the trip to Putrajaya Mosque to pray on dhuhur time. All of us felt amazed with a spectacular architecture and landscape of the ministerial building, including the prime minister office and his official residence, the king’s palace, and also the Putrajaya Mosque. It is the largest mosque in the country that able to accommodate around 7,000 Muslim worshippers at any one prayer session. Before arriving to Penang, we stopped and buy some Malaysian fruits.
We learnt Historical and Philosophical Background of Action Research which was conducted by Ms. Ng Khar Thoe on Tuesday, 17 November 2009. All participants understood how the real of action research happened. Then we learnt Problem Based Learning conducted by Ms. Warabhorn Preechaporn. She explained how to design learning process using PBL method. We got work project in group to Design the Malaysian Prime Minister’s Inner Garden. Then all participants joined Dr. Wahyudi in ICT Lab 1 to discuss On-Line Classroom Management using QUIA, a website which is used to facilitate teachers in classroom management including questionnaire for students. In the afternoon science participants joined in Internexia to learn English with Ms. Jillian.
We discussed the PBL project on Wednesday, 18 November 2009 followed by the group presentations. The mathematics groups’ presentation was held in Math Lab 1 with Ms. Warabhorn and the science groups’ presentation were in ICT Lab 1 with Dr. Wahyudi. The presentations were interesting and useful to improve our skill. In the afternoon we finished our On-Line Classroom Management based on the questionnaire data. Then Mathematics’ group had English Clinic with Ms. Jillian.
On Thursday, 19 November 2009, Mr. Kyaw Ahr Kar Nyunt explained Reflection on Teaching. He showed the difference between PBL method and traditional learning method. He asked our reflections after showing us two videos. There were a video of lesson study in Japan by Hiroshi Tanaka with PBL method and a video of Malaysian traditional teaching and learning process. The reflection results of PBL method were open ended problem, using critical and creative thinking, student centred model, active learning and constructivism method, etc. The reflections of traditional learning were less activity, good manage use of blackboard, teacher did not give reward to students, etc. We were asked to discuss in group on how to improve traditional learning method shown in the second video and then presented the result. In the afternoon, Mr. Devadason Robert Peter explained about Multiplier Effect (ME) and gave assignment to make ME proposal individualy. In ME sessions, we learnt how to share the knowledge we got in SEAMEO RECSAM into others by workshop conducted in our schools. After the ME session, science group got its turn to get English Clinic.
We learnt online students’ research on 20 November 2009. The facilitator, Mr. Julito C. Alligaen used ICT to show online teaching and learning process, as used for teleconference media. At that time we had an online study session from Ms. Yupaporn Laplai in Thailand. She explained that schools in Thailand have lots of projects in garbage recycle. We also had an online session with a master teacher from Philippines who explained her senior high school projects especially in environment and science. In this session with Mr. Julito, the participants had an assignment in group to design a classroom and the teaching and learning schedule for a school in remote area which only had a limited access of ICT but lots of students. All of the students must get their turn to use the ICT at least one hour per week. The group’s designs were presented one by one followed by Mr. Julito’s design proposal which already had the approval from UNICEF. This Friday was Mathematics group’s turn to get English Clinic. Saturday and Sunday were off days. We had free time and used it to finish preparing the group projects.

2.1.3 The Third Week Activities
Our activity during this week started with composing group project Classroom Action Research Proposal. This group project consists of the proposal with its instruments and all the equipments that needed for trying out our Classroom Action Research (CAR) on Thursday. During making our CAR proposal, the course supervisor and his colleague taught us on how to do the data collection on our CAR proposal. These activities happened from Monday until Wednesday.
On Thursday, we started to perform our CAR in class. The supervisor divided the class into two groups, science and mathematics. Science performed the try out in the ICT lab 1 room and supervised by Mr. Julito, while mathematics performed the try out in the Thailand Room and supervised by Dr. Wahyudi. The class arrangement was like this: each group that made the CAR proposal must present their way to act in the class; one person of the group would be the teacher to teach in the class, while the rest would be an observer. Other participants will act as students. During the try out, each group got so many inputs about their action in the class. This input could be used to reflect their CAR proposal (the CAR proposal and the instrument can be found in the appendix).
On Thursday evening, some of us went to TESCO, a shopping centre near RECSAM to buy meats, vegetables and also the cooking equipment for celebrating the Idul Adha on the next day. Some of the female teachers cooked at night until mid night and then continued it in subuh.
On Friday, the Muslim went to Masjid Negeri Pulau Pinang for Idul Adha praying. After praying, we could not see the slaughter. Dr. Wahyudi told us that the slaughter did not do in the mosque because the Muslim in Penang wants the mosque clean. When we arrived in RECSAM, our friends who did not pray already prepared the food for breakfast. The Muslim male then prepared themselves to go to the University Sains Malaysia (USM) mosque for praying. After praying, we had lunch and followed by dinner together.
After the dinner, some of went to Pesta Pulau Pinang. Pesta Pulau Pinang is like Pekan Raya Jakarta. Several of us bought some souvenirs and others played bumper car. Fortunately, we still could go back to RECSAM at the mid night by using the last private bus, because the RAPID Penang bus already stops operated. The next day activity was our trip around Penang. First, we went to Tokong Ular. In that place we could see a temple with many snakes inside of it. The visitor could take picture with the snake. Several of us bought some souvenirs in there. The second destination was Penang Bird Park in Butterworth. We did not enter this place because the cost for enter the bird park is quite expensive. We only looked for the endemic souvenir and took some pictures there. To go to the bird park we must across the Penang Bridge because Butterworth is located across the Penang Mainland. The Penang Bridge is like Suramadu Bridge in East Java. After visiting the bird park we went to George Town. George Town was known as a Heritage City which is acknowledged by UNESCO. We went to George Town on Penang Mainland using ferry to across the Penang strait. In George Town, we visited Fort Cornwallis. After that, we went to the north of Penang. We passed the Miami Beach and Batu Ferringgi to reach Taman Rimba. In Taman Rimba, we took some pictures and then went to the floating Mosque to pray.
Botanical Garden was our next destination. In this area, we were invited in Qurban Kenduri. We had lunch together and then we went to Kek Lok Si Pagoda. Kek Lok Si Pagoda is a place for the Buddhist. In this place, we can buy souvenir with cheap price and also see monk that are praying to the Buddha. After that we went back to RECSAM for taking a rest. On Sunday night, our supervisor met us and told us to make the data entry for the questionnaires that we brought from Indonesia.

2.1.4 The Fourth Week Activities
At week four on 30 November 2009, we were discussing about quantitative data analysis in the ICT lab 1 which fostered by Dr. Wahyudi. Our data analysis was the questionnaires data which were completed by our students before going to Malaysia. The data were first collected using excel program. The data input process took 6 hours time because we need to obtain data from at least 30 students. In the afternoon, we were invited by the consulate general of Indonesia in Penang to attend KORPRI 38th anniversary ceremony with the theme “KORPRI Support the Bureaucracy Reformation to Realize a Good Governance”. It was an honour for us to follow the ceremony at the consulate office. The ceremony was led by Mr. Moenir as the Consul General of Republic of Indonesia on Penang Island
On Tuesday, 1 December 2009, we learnt about qualitative data management using SPSS software that conducted by Dr. Wahyudi. The data we had collected on the previous day was analyzed using SPSS software. The use of SPSS software for the data analysis was a new thing for us, so it took more time to understand it. From the data analysis using SPSS software, we could make conclusions about students’ interaction with teacher and students’ attitude toward mathematics and science. In the night, we held a singing practice for the closing ceremony. The participants practiced seriously in order to carry out a perfect performance.
On Wednesday, 2 December 2009, we continued the activities with the study of writing CAR report, which is the final project or report of any individual or group project to be reported to the Director General in Jakarta. The project report that had been made will be applied to each school as one of teacher development. In the afternoon, we had a farewell session for English Clinic with Ms. Jillian. The English Clinic session was only filled with singing few songs together. Some of us even took the chance to dance with Ms. Jillian. At the end of the session, we took pictures together with Ms. Jillian. She also gave each of us a souvenir from Penang. Around 06.30 pm, we had a visit to Penang Hill. In there we went to Bukit Bendera which is the location to see the sight from the height of more than 500 m above the sea level of the Penang Island. We went there using an electric train. The Penang Island’s view from that place that night was very beautiful. Unfortunately we could not explore the place because it was rain. Before going back to RECSAM, we stopped by at a restaurant to buy some foods.
On Thursday, 3 December 2009, the activity was continuing the process of questionnaire data analysis with SPSS software. At the break time, the participants had a visit to Kek Lok Si Pagoda and Queensbay Mall. In the afternoon, the participants accepted the invitation from the Consul General of the Republic of Indonesia in his residence for silahturami and gathering session. Also being invited in the event were the 70 RSBI teachers from Central Java, Indonesian USM students, Indonesian engineers from BOSTET and also Indonesia Junior Tennis contingent which so far already won some medals for Indonesia. Some of the guests, especially RECSAM course participants, sang few songs. The event was closed by singing few songs together with the Consul General, such as Kemesraan, Tanah Airku, Desaku and Gelang Sipatu Gelang.
On Friday, 4 December 2009, before the closing ceremony, we attended the disseminating the findings sessions and course evaluation/ post test to know our knowlede after the course. Then we had the
closing ceremony rehearsal around 10.00 am before the male participants went for Friday praying. The closing ceremony and cultural show was conducted at 02:30 to 04:30 pm led by Dr. Azian T. S Abdullah, the Centre Director of RECSAM. The closing ceremony was attended by Mr. Moenir, the Consul General of Indonesia in Penang who presented the course certificate to each of the participants. It was like the graduation session at school. Each of us felt honour, proud and overwhelmed of it considering the quite long time taken for the course and the family left in Indonesia. Hard works really paid. The closing ceremony was also attended by the lecturers and RECSAM staff. Our group coordinator, Mr. Muhammad Afcariono, gave a speech represented all the course participants to show our gratitude for the course and RECSAM followed by the souvenirs delivery from the participants for RECSAM and its staff. The participants also performed few songs that have been practiced before. At the evening, we had the farewell party with Dr. Wahyudi as our course supervisor who already fostered us during the course. Then we went back to our room to pack our luggage because we had to leave early to the airport on Saturday morning.

2.2 MAIN ACTIVITIES
2.2.1 Main Mathematics Activities
During the course, the mathematics participants also followed some sessions focused on mathematics. The following report describes the sessions’ activities for mathematics group and also the other sessions perceived according to mathematics point of view.
LITERATURE REVIEW
During the International Conference on Science and Mathematics Education (CoSMEd) 2009, all participants were asked by the course supervisor to choose some articles that were published on the proceeding. The participants made a summary about articles (5 articles) and submitted it as an assignment of the course. There were 42 summaries written by the members of mathematics group. The title of the articles summarised by the mathematics participants are shown in table 1. (Files of the summaries were attached on the appendices of this report which can be found at CD).

Table 1 Title of CoSMEd Articles Summarised by The Mathematics Group
Title and Author of Articles Aa Hasan G Achmad Nizar Arief Praja S Asmadi Coni Setyadi Dwi Projo S Dwi Ratna M. A Kurniati S Lilis Yuningsih Maria M. S. Y Merv in P L Sri Wahjuni Ulfia Amdi Valencia W. W
Collaborative Lesson Research and Development for Teaching and Learning of Mathematics √ √ √ √
The Role of Geometry in Preparation of Mathematics Teachers √
Integrating Electronic Portfolio Assessment in The Teaching and Learning of Differential Equations √
Factors Causing Mathematics Anxiety Among Undergraduate Students √
Development of a Web-Based Computerized Testing System for Mathematics Using a Tablet PC √
Comparing the Mathematical Achievement of Limited English Proficient (LEP) and Non-LEP Students Using Bilingual Test Booklet √
Some Pros and Cons on Implementing Parallel and Block Teachings for Mathematics Modules √ √
Parents as Partners √ √ √ √ √ √
Newman’s Error Analysis Impact Upon Numeracy and Literacy √ √ √ √
The Role of Contexts and Teacher’s Questioning to Enhance Student’s Thinking √ √ √
Student Perspectives of Mathematics Teaching and Learning in the Upper Primary Classroom √ √
Intimations of The Japanese Lesson Study Towards the Achievement of Competency Standards for Mathematics Teacher Education in The Philippines √ √
Enhancing Prospective Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) Using Classroom Video Cases √ √ √
Integrated Mathematics in The Elementary School √
The Attributes of Teachers’ Pedagogical Decision Making Qualities in Mathematics Classroom √
A Case Study of Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Functions √
The Role of A Multi-Representational Instruction in The Understanding of Fractions in Elementary Mathematics √
Better Science and Mathematics Animations for Learning Using 3rd Technology? √
Language and The Teaching and Learning of Mathematics and Science √
Mathematical Problem-Solving Behaviours of Mathematics Teachers √
Mathematics Games as A Pedagogical Tool √ √ √ √
Proving Through Mathematical Dialogue √
Primary School Students’ Understanding of The Concept of Fractions in Symmetrical Shapes √ √
Development of Mathematical Board Game for Students of Elementary Schools to Avoid Mind in Chaos to Mathematics √
Use of Performance Task in Assessing Year Six Students’ Levels of Mathematical Thinking √ √
Enhancing Mathematics Processes and Thinking Skills in Values-Based Water Education √
Counting On: A Diagnostic and Remedial Mathematics Intervention for Middle Years Students √
Improving Mathematical Literacy Through Assessment √
Combining Lesson Study (LS) and Classroom Action Research (CAR) for Teacher Professional Development √
Meaningful Context in Mathematical Problem Solving: A Case Study √ √ √
An Analysis of The Distribution of Word Problems in Primary School Mathematics Textbook Used in Malaysian School √ √
The Attributes of Teachers’ Pedagogical Decision Making Qualities in Mathematics Classroom √
Mathematical and Scientific Literacy Around the World √
Does Prior-To-School Mathematics Exist in Practice? √ √
Success is Not an ‘I’ Game √
Improving Mathematical Literacy Through Assessment √ √
The Conceptual Understanding of Fractions as Part of a Set Among Year 5 Students √
Pedagogical Skills and Contents Mastery Among Science Teacher Trainees at The Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) √
Education Development for People with
Special Needs: a Thai Experience √
Science Teaching in The Primary School. a Comparison Between Good Practices Developed in France and in Italy in The XXIst Century √
Thai Grade 11 Students’ Decision Making Process About Biotechnology √
Assessing Student’s Mathematical Thinking: Can It Work? √

GEOGEBRA – ICT BASED TEACHING IN MATHEMATICS
GeoGebra is mathematics software used to solve some problems related to arithmetic, geometry, algebra, and calculus. This lecture conducted by Dr. Allan Leslie White. During the course, participants studied on how to operate and make some mathematics figures using GeoGebra. The picture below shows one of the mathematics learning instruments created using GeoGebra.

Picture 1 Sample of Mathematics Learning Instrument Created Using GeoGebra

The following table shows some instruments made by the members of mathematics group using GeoGebra (files can be found at CD).

Table 2 List of Instruments Made Using GeoGebra
File Name Description
Circle and Circular Angle on Circle
Activity 1.ggb Finding the relation between the centre and circular angle on circle
Activity 2.ggb Finding the relation between the circular and centre angle on circle
Quiz.ggb Exercise of relation between centre and circular angle on circle
Task 1.ggb Group investigation 1
Task 2.ggb Group investigation 2
Task 3.ggb Group investigation 3
Task 4.ggb Group investigation 4
Triangle
TRIANGLE1 ABC-DEF.ggb Investigating the properties of scalene triangle
TRIANGLE1 KLM-PQR.ggb Investigating the properties of isosceles triangle
TRIANGLE1 TUV.ggb Investigating the properties of equilateral triangle
TRIANGLE2.ggb Investigating the properties of triangle according to the size of its angle
TRIANGLE3.ggb Investigating the classification of triangle according to its side and angle
Mixed Topics
Area.ggb The area of quadrilateral
Circle.ggb The relation between centre and circular angle on circle
Parabola.ggb The graph of parabola
Parallel line.ggb The properties of angle constructed by parallel lines & transversal line
Side of a triangle.ggb The prove of Pythagorean Theorem
Similar Triangle.ggb The similarity of triangle
Sum of angle of triangle.ggb The property of sum of inner angle on triangle

PROBLEM BASED LEARNING
Problem based learning is a student-centred instructional strategy in which students collaboratively solve problems and reflect on their experiences. \
Each member of the group had different task in which they had to work collaboratively to fullfil the requests. The requests were:
• the design must be drawn according to scale
• a fountain in the centre of circular pond
• two sculptures that are at a distance of 6 meters from each other
• a grass foot path in such a way that when you stand at the centre of the foot path you are always the same distance from two sculptures
• two rows of flower bed which are always at a distance of 2 meters from the centre of the grass foot path in
The following picture shows one of designs created by group B Big Landscape Co. (Another designs can be found at CD)

Picture 2 Inner Garden Design of B Big Landscape Co. – Sample of PBL Product

MULTIPLIER EFFECT (ME) – PROJECT WORK
The participants prepared on program for enhancing Multiplier Effects (ME) for implementation upon return to their school. The session handled by Mr. Devadason Robert Peter. The proposals were refined based on comments and recommendations given by the facilitators. The table below shows the ME proposals’ title of mathematics group members (files of ME can be found at CD).
Table 3 List of ME Proposals’ Title of Mathematics Group
No Name Title of ME Proposals
1 Aa Hasan Gunara District-Based Workshop on Action Research:
Improving Teaching in Secondary Mathematics
2 Achmad Nizar Workshop on Implementing ICT in Classroom Action Research for Science and Mathematics Teachers
3 Arief Praja Susilo Integrated Training for Implementing Classroom Action Research (CAR) to Increase Student’s Achievement in RSBI School Jakarta
4 Asmadi Classroom Action Research (CAR): Improving Teaching in Secondary Mathematics
5 Coni Setyadi Workshop to Improve ICT Skills of Mathematics Teacher
6 Dwi Projo Setiawan Integrated Training for Implementing Classroom Action Research (CAR) to Increase Student’s Achievement in RSBI School Surabaya
7 Dwi Ratna Mujiwati A Workshop to Improve ICT Skills of Mathematics Teacher
8 Kurniati Sriwulani Mathematics Teacher Community of Tasikmalaya Workshop: Improving Mathematics Teacher Professionalism With Action Research
9 Lilis Yuningsih SMP Negeri 2 Sindang Workshop on Improving Mathematics and Science Teacher to Accommodate the Need of Students Whose the First Language is Not English in Secondary Schools RSBI
10 Maria Margaretha Sri Y Classroom Action Research (CAR): Improving Teaching in Secondary Science
11 Mervin P Lolowang Workshop on Implementing ICT in Classroom Action Research For Science and Mathematics Teachers
12 Sri Wahjuni Workshop on Action Research and GeoGebra Improving Teaching and Learning in Secondary Mathematic
13 Ulfia Amdi SMP Negeri 1 Medan North Sumatera-Based Workshop on Action Research: Improving Teaching in Secondary Mathematic
14 Valencia W. W Integrated Training for Implementing Classroom Action Research (CAR) to Increase Student’s Achievement in RSBI Schools Jakarta

CLASSROOM ACTION RESEARCH – GROUP PROJECT
The activities on the third week were focused on the Classroom Action Research (CAR) which is the main topic of this course. Started on Sunday evening, 21 November 2009, the 14 mathematics teachers who already divided into 5 groups prepared their group project related to CAR. The activity was group discussion conducted by the course supervisor, Dr. Wahyudi, to identify the problems that will be the rationale for performing classroom action research in each of the participant’s school. Each group was also asked to determine the title of the classroom action research. The list of the groups and their CAR’s title is shown on the following table.
Table 4 Group Members and Title of Classroom Action Research
Group Group Members Title Of CAR
I 1. Asmadi
2. Dwi Projo Setiawan
3. Maria Margaretha Sri Yuniarti Using Mathematical Game ‘Vertex Magic Total Labelling’ to Improve Students Motivation in Learning Mathematics
II 1. Aa Hasan Gunara
2. Kurniati Sriwulani
3. Lilis Yuningsih Improve the Students Creativity Using Contextual Teaching and Learning Model in Addition
III 1. Arief Praja Susilo
2. Ulfia Amdi
3. Valencia Widiyaningrum The Use of GeoGebra to Improve Junior High School Students’ Achievement in Geometry
IV 1. Coni Setyadi
2. Dwi Ratna Mujiwati A
3. Sri Wahjuni Enhance Mathematics Teaching and Learning of Straight Line Equation by Using GeoGebra
V 1. Achmad Nizar
2. Mervin P. Lolowang The Use of GeoGebra to Improve Students’ Understanding Centre and Circular Angle on Circle

On the next day, each group was guided by the course supervisor to make CAR proposal. The activities were started by an explanation from the course supervisor on how to start CAR and planning the action. Each group was asked to develop the questions research according to their CAR’s purpose and then writing it down as the rationale for the proposed CAR. On these next two days, each group was asked to complete the proposal with the literature review and the research methodology that will be used to implement their CAR. After each chapter was completed, the proposal was reviewed by the course supervisor and then returned to each group to be revised. Together with the proposal preparation, the participants also got the material about Data Collection Method conducted by Ms. Ng Khar Thoe which explained the triangulated data collection plan as part of the research methodology. The sample of the questions research and the triangulated data collection plan made by the participant’s group is shown on the following table.

Table 5 Triangulated Data Collection Plan
Research Question Data Source 1 Data Source 2 Data Source 3
Does the use of GeoGebra improve the interest of student’s in geometry? Observation using Flanders/Journal writing Interview Questionnaire
How does the use of GeoGebra improve the student’s achievement in geometry? Observation Interview Test result
What are the student’s perceptions toward the use of GeoGebra? Interview/Journal writing Questionnaire Observation

On Wednesday, 25 November 2009, the activity was developing action plan by preparing the instrument needed to perform the data collection – action on the next day. The instrument included were questionnaire, journal writing sheet, field notes, data observation table, lesson plan of the action, worksheet, etc. The samples of each of the instruments were attached on the appendices of this report.
The data collection – action was carried out by each group on Thursday, 26 November 2009 and conducted by Dr. Wahyudi as the course supervisor and also in this session, as an observer. Each participant was assumed as a student while the other group collected the data in the teaching and learning simulation. The group performed was consisted of 1 participant as a teacher and the other 1 or 2 participants as the observers. The first group performed was Mr. Asmadi’s group which carried out “Vertex Magic Total Labelling” as one method to motivate grade 7 students in learning mathematics. The students were divided into group of 6. Each group’s member was represented positive integers from 1 to 6 and then the groups were asked to perform a position arrangement followed the instruction given on the worksheet or by the teacher so that the total numbers performed was equal to a number instructed. The teacher then explained the method to make the arrangement.
The second group performed was Mr. Aa Hasan’s group which carried out the methods of performing addition involving negative integers. The methods performed were using models, using number line and using mental calculation. On the first method, the students were divided into three groups to solve problems involving addition using models given by the teacher. The third group was Mr. Arief’s group which performed Triangle topic using GeoGebra as the teaching and learning media. In this process, the students were asked to investigate and then made a conclusion about the definition and the properties of triangle on the GeoGebra files given by the teacher. At the closing activity, the students were asked to fill out the journal writing sheet which describes the obstacle they found during the lesson and also their expectation for the next lesson. This journal writing was meant to identify the students’ prior interest in using GeoGebra.
The fourth group performed was Mr. Coni’s group which carried out straight line equation using GeoGebra. The topic taught was determining gradient or slope of a line or a straight line equation. After the teacher giving the examples, the students were encouraged to do the exercises given using GeoGebra. The last group performed was Mr. Achmad Nizar’s group which carried out the central angle of circle properties using GeoGebra. After the teacher’s explanation, the students were asked to solve problems on a worksheet in group of 3. Then at the closing activity the students were asked to fill out the questionnaire.
At each of the end of the action by each group, the teacher (performed group) and the observers made a reflection. First, by the performed group and then the other group gave a comment on the action process. Finally, the course supervisor guided each group to make a writing report of the reflection that has been done. The sample of reflection made by a group is as follow:
“The teaching and learning process using GeoGebra was fun. The students were interested using this software. But in this process, the teacher seemed awkward and nervous in teaching using GeoGebra tools for the first time. Since it was also assumed as the first time for the students using GeoGebra, in the actual implementation of action, it will be better if the teacher plans a certain session to explore and introduce GeoGebra feature to the students before performing the mathematics subjects or topics.”

“The students enjoy using this software. They could improve themselves by exploring the software following the instruction on the worksheets and also easily repeat the process when they didn’t understand the previous process explained by the teacher. This also made the teaching process for the teacher easier and more effective. The students were assisted well by the teacher when they got problems. But when the teacher had to cope with the lower achievement students, it would better if the teacher prepared another activity for the faster learners or high achievement students that they could do it by themselves or in a group.”

2.2.2 Main Science Activities
During the course, the science participants also followed some sessions focused on science. The following report describes the sessions’ activities for science group and also the other sessions perceived according to science point of view.
LITERATURE REVIEW
During the International Conference on Science and Mathematics Education (CoSMEd) 2009, all participants were asked by the course supervisor to choose some articles that were published on the proceeding. The participants made a summary about articles (5 articles) and submitted it as an assignment of the course. There were 80 summaries written by the members of science group. The title of the articles summarised by the science participants are shown in table 1. (Files of the summaries were attached on the appendices of this report which can be found at CD).

Table 1
Title of CoSMed Articles Summarised by The Science Group
Title and Author of Articles Ahmad Syauqi Erma Fatmawati Maja Erliany Rihi Muchamad Afcariono Salamah Samsul Azwar Sukarno Tito Sutrisno Anggreini Wibowo Arief Pramudyo N Aryani Artha Kristanti Hendra Khoirul Anam Lely Setyowati N Rahayu Sri Hastuti Yugo Triawanto
The challenges ahead for research and development on conceptual change in science √ √ √ √ √ √
Astronomy and outreach activities and education in primary and secondary schools and colleges in Malaysia √
Combining lesson study (ls) and classroom action research (car) for teacher professional development √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √
The use of journal writing to help students understand better the lessons √ √ √ √ √
Thai grade 11 students’ decision making process about biotechnology √
Metacognitive skill measurement integrated in achievement test √
The proposed conceptual framework of e-audio visual biology for teaching and learning in Indonesia senior high schools √ √
Grade 10 students’ physics problem solving ability of force and law of motion using 7e learning cycle and polya’ s problem solving technique √ √
Incorporating Students’ Funds of Knowledge To Develop Students’ Interest Towards Learning Science √
Learning Science Concepts by Matching Science Teaching Methods with Students’ Preferable Learning Styles √
Learning Science Cognitive Conflict Management Module and Its Effect on Cognitive Development and Science Achievement √
Integrating content and language: exploring teaching and learning practices of a biology excellent teacher √ √ √ √
Response pattern analysis on the burning candle experiment: timss-based study √ √
The impact of teacher misconceptions about projectile motion on student
learning
√ √
Better science and mathematics animations for learning using 3d technology √ √
Grade 11 students capability of analytical thinking and attitude toward science through teaching and learning about sound based on science technology and society (sts) approach √
The character of science teaching in the Malaysian smart schools: results from classroom observation records √ √ √
The effects of a technology-enhanced inquiry instructional model on students’ understanding of science in Thailand √ √
Cognitive conflict management module and its effect on cognitive development and science achievement: a Malaysian context √
Learning scientific concepts by matching science teaching methods with students’ preferable learning styles √ √
Grade 11 students’ mental model of fluid and analytical thinking in science teaching through science
technology and society (sts) approach √
Secondary school students’ perceptions of teacher-student interaction and
their classroom learning environment √
Development of mathematical board game for students of elementary schools to avoid mind in chaos to mathematics √
Factors causing mathematics anxiety among undergraduate students √
Comparing the mathematical achievement of limited english proficient (lep) and non-lep students using bilingual test booklet √
Science teachers’ motivation to teach science and important intrinsic factors √
Congruency between language and science / math for accelerated learning √
Response pattern analysis on the burning candle experiment: timss-based study √
The use of ict as a tool to help improve pupils understanding in the natural processes and human activities √ √
Assessment of preservice teachers’ environmental citizenship attributes:
implications for environmental education curiculum and training √ √ √
Improving science literacy through a conducive laboratory learning environment: a proposed model √
Students’ achievement and language problems learning biology in english
in public and private schools √
the challenges ahead for research and development on conceptual change in science √
Improving Mathematical Literacy Through Assessment √
The Character of Science Teaching In Malaysian Smart School: Result from Classroom Observation Records √
How student make sense of particles in relation to the states of matter, change of state and diffusion √
The proposed conceptual framework of e-audio visual biology for teaching and
learning in Indonesia senior high schools √ √
Integrating content and language: exploring teaching and learning practices of a biology excellent teacher √ √
Promoting environmental stewardship through project-based learning √ √
Students’ achievement and language problems in learning biology in English in public and private school √

Parents as Partners √

The Implications of Policy Mandated Professional Development on New Scheme Teachers √

Achieving educational soundness for science mathematics and technology digital resource instructional design √

Self-regulated learning: gender differences in motivation and learning strategies amongst Malaysian science students √

The development and assessment of brain based teaching approach in the context of form four physics instruction √

University students’ problem solving skills in dealing with the basic parallel resistors circuits √

Mathematical and scientific literacy around the world √

ICT-Based Teaching in Science
ICT-Based Teaching in Science course was held on Friday, 13 November 2009. The material was presented by Mr. Devadason Robert Peter from Specialist, Research & Development division of SEAMEAO RECSAM. In this session, the course participants received a variety of information about the use of ICT in teaching and learning process. The material was presented in the form of lecture, experiments, assignments and discussions. In general, this session emphasised the mastery of ICT tools and media in learning. Mr. Devadason Robert Peter delivered some materials featured the theme of Integrating ICT in Supporting and Active Learning in Secondary Science Classrooms-Online Resources.
In this activity, participants followed three activities and five experiments. These activities were the use of the Internet to support learning process, the use of multimedia materials such as EUREKA and PHaT animation and online learning classroom. While the experiments were the cloth folding exercise to understand the difference between the effectiveness of the use of audiovisual with a picture, the mental rotation exercise, the prior knowledge exercise using video and how to use the web-quest to improve the teaching learning process.

Activity 1
All the participants used the internet to search for two graphics, two multimedia animations and two simulations and when it was possible, the participant could download them into their computer. They could show and explain to the class what they found to be interesting for them and ensure that they were related to their subject expertise.
(Skills to be acquired: Search Engine in Web Browser downloads programs like RealPlayer, Plug-ins like Flash for viewing animations).

Activity 2
The paper based resources (text and diagrams) to learn about static and dynamic content could be done in interesting way. We agree that the use of multimedia, especially when it involves dynamic content (e.g. studying the movement of blood in the human body), would be a much better and powerful way of learning. Research on learning from multimedia animations is not an obvious picture. We attempted three experiments to understand this complexity.

Experiment 1
The cloth folding exercise

Experiment 2
The mental rotation exercise

Experiment 3
The prior knowledge exercise

Activity 3
The participants had a great deal of experience in showing students effective ways to learn science from paper based resources that was learnt from text and diagrams. However, there are many effective ways to learn from the electronic media.

Experiment 1
The participants watched some videos of students using animations to study. We were asked to discuss and suggest ways that the teacher and the student could use to improve teaching and learning process. The participants got the experience in using software like EUREKA and PHaT.

Experiment 2
The participants learnt on how to use WebQuest. A WebQuest is an inquiry-oriented lesson format in which most or all the information that learners work with comes from the web. The model was developed by Bernie Dodge at San Diego State University in February, 1995 with early input from SDSU/Pacific Bell fellow Tom March, the Educational Technology staff at San Diego Unified School District, and waves of participants each summer at the Teach the Teachers Consortium.
Since those beginning days, tens of thousands of teachers have embraced WebQuests as a way to make good use of the internet while engaging their students in the kinds of thinking that the 21st century requires. The model has spread around the world, with special enthusiasm in Brazil, Spain, China, Australia and Holland.

Problem-Based Learning (PBL)
Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is a student-centred instructional strategy in which students collaboratively solve problems and reflect on their experiences. It was pioneered and used extensively at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The Materials Department at Queen Mary, University of London was the first Materials department in the UK to introduce PBL. Characteristics of PBL are:
• Learning is driven by challenging, open-ended problems.
• Students work in small collaborative groups.
• Teachers take on the role as “facilitators” of learning.
Accordingly, students are encouraged to take responsibility for their group and organize and direct the learning process with support from a tutor or instructor. Advocates of PBL claim it can be used to enhance content knowledge and foster the development of communication, problem-solving, and self-directed learning skill.
In this study, our facilitators, Dr. Warabhorn Preechaporn divided us into six groups in which three groups were from mathematics and three groups from science. We had to design the Prime Minister’s Inner Garden. The scenario was:
There were 3 companies invited:
1. Majestic Gardens Co.
2. B Big Landscape Co.
3. Recreation Themes International Ltd.
Among the jobs advertised on their websites were
1. Project Manager
2. Creative Designer
3. Presenter
4. ICT Designer
5. Budget Planner
6. Landscape Specialist
7. Accountant
8. Culture Researcher Expert
We had to write our resume indicating areas of expertise to secure one of the jobs then we have to present our groups project in front of the class. The following picture shows one of designs created by group B Big Landscape Co. (Another designs can be found at CD)

From this study, we learnt how to make group discussion based on the problem which was given by our teacher, but unfortunately the case is not similar with our background education.
PROJECT WORK MULTIPLIER EFFECT
The participants prepared on program for enhancing Multiplier Effects (ME) for implementation upon return to their school. The ME session handled by Mr. Devadason Robert Peter. The proposals were refined based on comments and recommendations given by the facilitators. The table below shows the ME of science group members (files of ME can be found at CD).
Name Title of ME
1 Khoirul Anam, S.Pd
Integrated Training for Implementing Classroom Action Research (CAR) to Increase Student’s Achievement in RSBI school Surabaya
2 Ahmad Syauqi Integrated Training for Implementing Classroom Action Research (CAR) to Increase Student’s Achievement in RSBI school Jakarta
3 Arief Pramudyo Nugroho Province-Based Workshop On Integrated Training For Implementing Classroom Action Research (Car): Increasing Student’s Achievement In Secondary Science (Rsbi School Jakarta)
4 Anggreini
Class Action Workshop In Penabur Secondary School Jakarta
5 Aryani Artha Kristanti Workshop On Classroom Action Research (Car) : Enhancing Teaching In Secondary Science
6 Erma Fatmawati District-Based Workshop On Action Research: Improving Teaching Science In Junior High School
7
Hendra, S.T.
Internal-Based Workshop On Action Research: Improving Teaching In Science And Mathematics
8 Muchamad Afcariono, S.Si, S.Pd Workshop On Implementing Ict In Classroom Action Research For Science And Mathematics Teachers
9
Lely Setyowati Ningrum, S.Pd. District-Based Workshop On Classroom Action Research: Improving Teaching In Secondary Science
10
Rahayu Sri Hastuti
Province-Based Workshop On Action Research:
Improving Teaching In Secondary Science
11 Maja Erliany Rihi Junior High School Kedamean-Based Workshop On
Action Research: Improving Teaching In Secondary Science And Mathematic
12 Sukarno Province Workshop On Action Research: Improving Teaching In Secondary Science
13 Samsul Azwar, S.Pd. District-Based Workshop On
Action Research: Developing And Enhancing Ability Teaching In Secondary Science
14 Dra. Salamah
School Based Workshop On Action Research: Improving Teaching In Secondary Mathematics And Science
15
La Ode Iman Sutrisno
District-Based Workshop On Action Research: Improving Teaching Science In Junior High School
16 Yugo Triawanto Workshop On Action Research: Using Experiment And Animation For Teaching And Learning Process

CLASSROOM ACTION RESEARCH
Classroom Action Research is main course program to us. Based on schedule we learnt CAR start on 3thweek until 4thweek step by step. All of participants were divided by 2 big groups, Mathematics and Science. Science is divided by 2 small groups, Biology and Physic. Then Biology and Physic are divided by 3 smallest groups, each group contain two or three participant like the table below:
Science Group Member
Biology Group I M. Afcariono Salamah Samsul Azwar
Group II Erma Fatmawati Maja Erliany Rihi La Ode Iman S
Group III Ahmad Syauqi Sukarno
Physic Group I Anggreini Aryani Artha Khoirul Anam
Group II Lely Setyowati Rahayu Sri H Yugo Triawanto
Group III Arief Pramudyo N Hendra

After the groups were made, on the first time in 3th week each group looked for and defined the research problem and then made the research title base on the research problems. The research titles of each group can be shown in the following table:
Science Group The title
Biology Group I Implementing Students Teams Achievements Divisions (STAD) Models in Biology to Enhance Skill Process Critical Thinking of Seventh Grade Students
Group II Enhancing Students Environmental Awareness by Using Problem Based-Learning
Group III Enhancing Student Understanding in Learning Human Circulatory System by Using Hybrid Method (The Use of ICT and Bank Question)
Physic Group I The Use of Problem Based Learning to Enhance Students” Understanding of Energy
Group II Improving Student Achievement In Physic by Using Concept Map
Group III The Use Of ICT to Improve Students Motivation In Learning Physics

After the groups made the research title, we have to make “Planning the Action” in the proposal. We have to know more the issues and what the data will we collect, who have to collect data, when to collect data, where to collect data and how to collect data, what data collection method we will use. We have to make the data triangulation like the example bellow:
Completed Triangulation Matrix
Improving students’ achievement in Physics through concept map
Research Question Data Source 1 Data Source 2 Data Source 3
What did we actually do to improve students’ achievement using concept map? (Act) Lesson plan Documentary analysis on students’ learning output
or Physics achievement test Observation checklist/Survey
How the concept map can improve the teaching and learning process?
(Change) Pre Test and Post Test about making concept map and question sheet Record of Concept map presentation by students Observation checklist of concept map presentation by students
What are the evidences collected after the actions taken to improve students’ achievement and the changes in students’ targeted performance? (Relationship) Contras the lesson Plan with performance data pre Test and Post Test about concept map and question sheet Correlate lesson plan with student’s record of concept map presentation Correlate lesson plan with observation checklist of concept map presentation

On Wednesday, all of participants of Classroom Action Research Course did the activity in group to develop Action Plan which had been made and supervised by Dr. Wahyudi. Each group were looked enthusiast to do the Developing Action Plan because it had been finished early. Each group did everything to prepare what would be presented in the Data collection-Action in peer teaching on the next day. We made lesson plan to peer teaching and also instruments that used for data collection-Action.
On Thursday, we did the peer teaching which was attended by each 3 groups of physic and 3 group of biology. Those activities started from 8.30 am to 4.30 pm. Act as the supervisor of the peer teaching in science was Mr. Jullito. The peer teaching was executed as an implementation of Classroom Action Research (CAR) proposal that have conducted by each group.

The performance of each group will be described as follow:
1. Group Physics 1 involving Arif Pramudyo Nugraha (teacher of SMPN 11 Jakarta) and Hendra (teacher of SMP Kusuma Bangsa Palembang South Sumatera). This group promoted the topic of their CAR: The Use of ICT to Improve Student Motivation in Learning Physics. Then they were following up this topic toward a peer-teaching activity that engage 7th grade learning material: distance and displacement, considered to syllabus in national curriculum. By conducting this peer teaching activity, it was expected to answer the research questions:
a. How the use of ICT in learning physics are able to increase students’ motivation
b. How the importance of student achievement as about using ICT in teaching and learning process.
2. Group Biology 1 involving Ahmad Syauqi (teacher of SMPN 19 Jakarta) and Sukarno (teacher of SMPN 1 Jambi). This group promoted the topic of their CAR: Enhancing Student Understanding in Learning Human Circulatory System by Using Hybrid Method (The Use of ICT and Bank Question. Then they were following up this topic toward a peer-teaching activity that engages 8th grade learning material: human circulatory system, considered to syllabus in national curriculum. By conducting this peer teaching activity, it was expected to answer the research questions in CAR: How ICT and Bank Question can enhance students’ understanding in learning human circulatory system.
3. Group Physics 2 involving Aryani Arta Kristanti (teacher of SMPN 11 Jakarta), Anggraeni Wibowo (SMP and Khairul Anam (teacher of SMPN 6 Surabaya East Java). This group promoted the topic of their CAR: The Use of Problem Based Learning (PBL) to enhance student’s understanding of energy. Then they were following up this topic toward a peer-teaching activity that engage 9th grade learning material: Energy, considered to syllabus in national curriculum. By conducting this peer teaching activity, it was expected to answer the research questions in CAR:
a. How does PBL improve the students’ understanding of energy?
b. How does PBL improve the students’ skill about energy?
c. How does PBL improve the students’ attitude of learning science?
4. Group Biology 2 involving Muhammad Afcariono (teacher of SMP Nasional KPS Balikpapan), Samsul Azwar (teacher of SMPN 1 Muara Bungo Jambi) and Salamah (teacher of SMPN 1 Tebing Tinggi North Sumatera). This group does promote the topic of their CAR is Implementating Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD) models in Biology to enhance skill process and critical thinking of Seventh Grade Student. Then they were following up this topic toward a peer-teaching activity that engages 7th grade learning material: diversity of living things, considered to syllabus in national curriculum. By conducting this peer teaching activity, it was expected to answer the research questions in CAR:
a. How STAD implementations in Biology can enhance the students’ skill process.
b. How STAD implementations in Biology can enhance students’ critical thinking.
5. Group Physics 3 involving Yugo Triawanto (teacher of SMP Muhamadiyah 12 Gresik East Java), Rahayu Sri Hastuti (teacher of SMPN 1 Magelang Central Java) and Lely Setyawai Ningrum (teacher of SMPN 2 Temanggung Central Java). This group promoted the topic of their CAR: Improving Student achievement in Physics by using concept map. Then they were following up this topic toward a peer-teaching activity that engage 7th grade learning material: measurement, considered to syllabus in national curriculum. By conducting this peer teaching activity, it was expected to answer the research questions in CAR: Implementation of using concept map to make the students’ understanding become easier and easier.
6. Group Biology 3 involving La Ode Iman Sutrisno (teacher of SMPN 12 Makassar South Sulawesi), Maja Erliany Rihi (teacher of SMPN 1 Kedamean East Java) and Erma Fatmawati (teacher of SMPN 1 Batang). This group promoted the topic of their CAR: Enhancing Students’ Environmental Awareness by Using Problem Based Learning. Then they were following up this topic toward a peer-teaching activity that engages 7th grade learning material: environmental problem, considered to syllabus in national curriculum. By conducting this peer teaching activity, it was expected to answer the research questions in CAR:
a. How PBL can accommodate the activities to enhance students’ environmental awareness?
b. What are the changes in attitudes and behaviour of students on the basis of project work?
c. How effective is problem based learning to be used as a strategy in teaching environmental management?
Based on Mr. Julito’s comment about how did the peer teaching activities executed, every group had done the peer teaching very well and it can be reflected from the peer teaching data. The important thing in the whole learning process was how we stimulated the students to enjoy and being more creative; for example, using ICT integration in learning process by giving students a chance to operate the ICT tools when learning process was being done.
These are some reflections of the peer teaching:
1. Title : Improving Students Achievement In Physics By
Using Concept Map
Group Members : Rahayu, Lely, Yugo Triawanto
Reflection : This group using concept method for making students understanding become easier. So, at the first and the end of teaching and learning process of peer teaching, the teacher gave the pre test and post test for measuring the effectiveness of concept map. Besides using concept map, this group also used animation for the materials. Because the measurement tools were limited, the teacher gave simple way to the students for learning at home by using animation. Unfortunately the time for peer teaching was very limited so the teaching and learning process can’t be optimal. The teacher used most of the time for taking the data for Classroom Action Research.
2. Title : ICT to Improve Students’ motivation in learning
Physics
Group Members : Arif Pramudyo Nugroho, Hendra
Reflection : ICT was used by this group as the core of teaching and learning process. Animation Power Point was the important things in this teaching method. Pre test and post test was done in this peer teaching with the same questions. The students interested to this peer teaching and gave attention to do the worksheet.
3. Title : The Used of PBL to Enhance Student’s
Understanding of Energy
Group Members : Anggraini, Artha, Anam
Reflection : Solving problem in daily life was the interesting method for teaching and learning process. The students made the calculation about the electric energy that used by the school using physics concept. After calculating, the students made analysis for saving the budget. The process and the method were very good. Unfortunately most of the time was used to solve the electric saving problem. So, most of the time in the teaching and learning process was spent for calculating.
4. Title : Implementing Students teams Achievement
Division (STAD) Models in Biology to Enhance Skill Process and Critical Thinking of seventh Grade Students
Group Member : Afcar, Syamsul, Salamah
Reflection : Natural instinct was used in this teaching and learning method. Without explanation the teacher asked the students to classify the plant and animal in the certain group. The category was given to the students to decide. So that the students challenged to classify and also they felt involved to the subject. The students attracted to the teaching and learning process because there was competition condition. Finally the student could finish the group work correctly. The results were different between one group to the other group.
5. Title : Enhancing Student Understanding in Learning Human Circulatory System By Using Hybrid Method(The Use Of ICT and Bank Question)
Group Member : Sukarno, Syauqi
Reflection : The group used the ICT for teaching and learning process. Some animation and movie clip about circulatory of human had given to the students. As the other group, this group used the pre test and post test for measuring the ability of the students at the beginning and at the end of teaching and learning process. So the group would know the effectiveness of ICT method for teaching and learning process.
6. Title : Enhancing Students Environmental Awareness By Using Problem Based-Learning
Group Member : Tito, Erma, Maja
Reflection : Presenting the disaster to the student by using movie clip was very good for apperception in the teaching and learning process. From that movie, the teacher raised up the awareness of the students about environment and solved the environmental problem given to the student. With high awareness, the students tried to solve the environmental problem as the assignment. This method was very effective because made the students did the assignment seriously without forcing.
ENGLISH CLINIC
English clinic was a useful training program to improve and deepen English language of the course participants during the course programme. This programme was held two times a week which started at five o’clock until 6 pm. The English Clinic course was divided into 2 classes, Science and Mathematics. Science class was held on Tuesday and Thursday, while the Mathematics Class was held on Monday and Wednesday. In one month, we got eight meetings.
The English Clinic teacher was Ms. Jillian and we also had one session with Ms. Jullina. Before beginning the lesson, the participants filled the attendance list first, with the signature or business cards. The model of learning was in the form of clinical student activities, games, discussion, and cooperative learning. Specifically, on the third week, the participants learned about grammar, with team competition method, browse maps, crossword puzzles and making sentences from the cards.

SECTION 3
SUMMARY

All the customised courses participants felt happy and enthusiastic in this training. The lack of reluctance in asking, mutual respect, mutual help and cooperation of all session were in good results. We consider this training carried out well and will be very useful to be applied in our school.
There were many things that we learnt. We learnt the trend and issues in Science and Mathematics Education in CoSMEd sessions, ICT based teaching in Science and Mathematics, Classroom Management, Problem based learning, Reflection in Teaching, Multiplier Effect in teaching learning, Student research online, Research Problem, Data Collection Method, Developing Action Plan, Qualitative and Quantitative Data Analysis, Writing Action Research Report, Sharing The Finding, and English Clinic Class. We made assignments and some of them can be seen in appendix which is collected in the enclosed CD.
We will continue to study the entire lesson that we had received in RECSAM in our school. Although there were many things we knew, we felt that our knowledge could not be satisfactorily obtained. The last, we are very grateful for the opportunity that the directorate had been given to us and we hope we will get another opportunity to enhance our teaching skill.

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UPAYA PENINGKATAN MOTIVASI BELAJAR DALAM PEMBELAJARAN IPA MELALUI PEMBERIAN REINFORCEMENT SISWA KELAS VII-4 SMP NEGERI 1 TEBING TINGGI”

ABSTRAKS
SALAMAH. Upaya Peningkatan Motivasi Belajar Dalam Pembelajaran IPA Melalui Pemberian Reinforcement Siswa Kelas VII-4 SMP Negeri Tebing Tinggi: SMP Negeri 1 Tebing Tinggi, 2007. Materi yang diajarkan adalah Pengelompokan Makhluk Hidup dan Ekosistem. Tujuan penulisan adalah untuk mengetahui sejauhmanakah peningkatan motivasi siswa dalam pembelajaran IPA dengan pemberian reinforcement. Manfaat penulisan adalah bagi siswa dapat meningkatkan minat dan motivasi dalam belajar yang berakibat meningkatkan prestasi belajarnya, bagi guru sebagai salah satu bahan masukan untuk mengaktifkan minat siswa dalam pembeklajaran IPA, bagi sekolah sebagai umpan balik untuk meningkatkan mutu pendidikan di sekolah. Penelitian dilakukan dalam dua siklus. Hasil yang didapat terdapat peningkatan motivasi belajar dalam pembelajaran IPA melalui reinforcement siswa kelas VII-4 SMP Negeri 1 Tebing Tinggi
Kata Kunci: Peningkatan, Motivasi , Reinforcement.

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Usaha Meningkatkan Berpikir Kritis dan Kreatif Bagi Siswa SMP Melalui Pengembangan Kurikulum khususnya Rencana Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran (RPP)

Bab I
Pendahuluan
A. Latar Belakang
Mata pelajaran biologi diberikan kepada peserta didik dengan cara menngali kemampuan berpikir logis, analitis, sistematis, kritis dan kreatif serta kemampuan bekerja sama. Dalam membelajarkan biologi kepada siswa, apabila guru masih menggunakan paradigma pembelajaran lama dalam arti komunikasi dalam pembelajaran biologi cenderung berlangsung satu arah umumnya dari guru ke siswa, guru lebih mendominasi pembelajaran maka pembelajaran cenderung monoton sehingga mengakibatkan peserta didik (siswa) merasa jenuh dan tersiksa. Oleh karena itu dalam membelajarkan biologi kepada siswa, guru hendaknya lebih memilih berbagai variasi pendekatan, strategi, metode yang sesuai dengan situasi sehingga tujuan pembelajaran yang direncanakan akan tercapai. Perlu diketahui bahwa baik atau tidaknya suatu pemilihan model pembelajaran akan tergantung tujuan pembelajarannya, kesesuaian dengan materi pembelajaran, tingkat perkembangan peserta didik (siswa), kemampuan guru dalam mengelola pembelajaran serta mengoptimalkan sumber-sumber belajar . Berdasarkan penjelasan di atas sebaiknya RPP yang dibuat oleh guru dikembangkan agar siswa dapat berpikir kritis dan kreatif.
B. Tujuan
Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menambah wawasan para pembaca dalam membuat rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran agar dapat menerapkan pendekatan, strategi, metode pembelajaran yang sesuai dengan tingkat perkembangan siswa dan materi pembelajaran sehingga harapan kita agar siswa dapat berpikir kritis dan kreatif dapat tercapai.
Bab II
Pembahasan
A.Berpikir kritis
Pengertian berpikir ada yang menganggap sebagai suatu proses asosiasi saja; pandangan semacam ini dikemukakan oleh kaum Asosiasionist. Sedangkan Kaum Fungsionalist memandang berpikir sebagai suatu proses penguatan hubungan antara stimulus dan respons. Diantaranya ada yang mengemukakan bahwa berpikir merupakan suatu kegiatan psikis untuk mencari hubungan antara dua objek atau lebih. Secara sederhana, berpikir adalah memproses informasi secara mental atau secara kognitif. Secara lebih formal, berpikir adalah penyusunan ulang atau manipulasi kognitif baik informasi dari lingkungan maupun simbol-simbol yang disimpan dalam long term memory. Jadi, berpikir adalah sebuah representasi simbol dari beberapa peristiwa atau item (Khodijah, 2006:117). Sedangkan menurut Drever (dalam Walgito, 1997 dikutip Khodijah, 2006:117) berpikir adalah melatih ide-ide dengan cara yang tepat dan seksama yang dimulai dengan adanya masalah. Solso (1998 dalam Khodijah, 2006:117) berpikir adalah sebuah proses dimana representasi mental baru dibentuk melalui transformasi informasi dengan interaksi yang komplek atribut-atribut mental seperti penilaian, abstraksi, logika, imajinasi, dan pemecahan masalah. Dari pengertian tersebut tampak bahwa ada tiga pandangan dasar tentang berpikir, yaitu (1) berpikir adalah kognitif, yaitu timbul secara internal dalam pikiran tetapi dapat diperkirakan dari perilaku, (2) berpikir merupakan sebuah proses yang melibatkan beberapa manipulasi pengetahuan dalam sistem kognitif, dan (3) berpikir diarahkan dan menghasilkan perilaku yang memecahkan masalah atau diarahkan pada solusi.Definisi yang paling umum dari berfikir adalah berkembangnya ide dan konsep (Bochenski, dalam Suriasumantri (ed), 1983:52 dalam http://www.andragogi.com) di dalam diri seseorang.
Menurut Edward de bono (dalam kemampuan berpikir kritis, kreatif dan proaktif,2008,diakes tanggal 16 September 2010 melalui http://www.smartfm.co.id/) ada 3 tingkatan kualitas otak dalam berpikir yang pertama adalah berpikir Kritis, yang lebih tinggi lagi adalah berpikir kreatif dan yang paling tinggi adalah berpikir Pro aktif. Kritis adalah suatu pola tingkatan berpikir kita yang selalu dapat melihat sisi-sisi kekurangan dari sebuah konsep atau pemikiran; terutama konsep dan pemikiran orang lain. Oleh karena itu pada tingkatan berpikir Kritis seseorang akan selalu melakukan Kritisi terhadap konsep atau hasil karya orang lain tanpa bisa memberikan solusinya. Kreatif adalah suatu pola tingkatan berpikir kita yang tidak hanya bisa melihat sisi lemah sebuah konsep atau pemikiran namun sekaligus ia juga bisa mengusulkan berbagai ide yang dapat digunakan sebagai pemecahannya. Oleh karena itu pada tingkatan berpikir kreatif seseorang tidak hanya berhasil menemukan sisi lemah dari sebuah konsep namun juga melahirkan konsep-konsep baru yang jauh lebih sempurna.
Salah satu contoh buah pemikiran kreatif yang luar biasa adalah Kecerdasan Beragam atau Multiple Intelligence; yang dicetuskan oleh Howard Gardner pada tahun 1983. Tingkatan yang paling tinggi dari semuanya adalah cara berpikir proaktif; Proaktif adalah suatu tingkatan pola berpikir manusia yang bisa memprakirakan hal-hal apa mungkin menjadi permasalahan manusia dimasa mendatang dan mulai mempersiapkan solusinya sejak masa sekarang (berpikir kritis, kreatif dan proaktif,2008,diakes tanggal 16 September 2010 melalui http://www.smartfm.co.id/).
Ada lagi sebuah pemikiran yang luar biasa dasyat tentang berpikir proaktif ini telah dituangkan kedalam buku yang berjudul “Management by Two Thousand XXX” karangan George Berner.
George Berner secara garis besar melukiskan kemajuan perjalanan teknologi manusia sampai dengan tahun 2500 an, buku yang luar biasa dasyat ini telah melahirkan sebuah prediksi pemikiran bahwa pada tahun 2500; manusia sudah akan mulai bermigrasi ke Planet Mars, karena pada tahun 2400an ; manusia telah berhasil menciptakan teknologi pengatur Iklim, hal ini terjadi setelah kira-kira tahun 2300an manusia telah bisa membuat sistem tata udara dst…..
Anda mungkin bisa saja berpikir bahwa….”ah itu kan hanya sebuah khayalan dan impian manusia saja….?”
Namun ternyata di negara maju, buku ini telah mengispirasi banyak Ilmuan dan peneliti untuk semakin giat melakukan berbagai riset dan penelitiannya.
Sementara bangsa-bangsa lain sudah berada pada tingkatan berpikir Pro Akti jauh kedepan memikirkan suatu proses migrasi manusia untuk membentuk sebuah kehidupan baru di Planet Mars, sudah berada dilevel manakah pola berpikir mayoritas bangsa kita saat ini ?
sistem pembelajaran yang diterapkan di sekolah pada umumnya yang cenderung bersifat hafalan ini telah membuat anak-anak kita sulit sekali untuk bisa mencapai tingkat berpikir kritis.
Menurut Ennis (dalam Hassoubah, 2004), berpikir kritis adalah berpikir secara beralasan dan reflektif dengan menekankan pada pembuatan keputusan tentang apa yang harus dipercayai atau dilakukan. Oleh karena itu, indikator kemampuan berpikir kritis dapat diturunkan dari aktivitas kritis siswa sebagai berikut :
(1). Mencari pernyataan yang jelas dari setiap pertanyaan.
(2). Mencari alasan.
(3). Berusaha mengetahui informasi dengan baik.
(4). Memakai sumber yang memiliki kredibilitas dan menyebutkannya.
(5). Memperhatikan situasi dan kondisi secara keseluruhan.
(6). Berusaha tetap relevan dengan ide utama.
(7). Mengingat kepentingan yang asli dan mendasar.
8). Mencari alternatif
(9). Bersikap dan berpikir terbuka.
(10). Mengambil posisi ketika ada bukti yang cukup untuk melakukan sesuatu.
(11). Mencari penjelasan sebanyak mungkin apabila memungkinkan.
(12). Bersikap secara sistimatis dan teratur dengan bagian-bagian dari keseluruhan masalah.
Indikator kemampuan berpikir kritis yang diturunkan dari aktivitas kritis no. 1 adalah mampu merumuskan pokok-pokok permasalahan. Indikator yang diturunkan dari aktivitas kritis no. 3, 4, dan 7 adalah mampu mengungkap fakta yang dibutuhkan dalam menyelesaikan suatu masalah. Indikator yang diturunkan dari aktivitas kritis no. 2, 6, dan 12 adalah mampu memilih argumen logis, relevan dan akurat. Indikator yang diturunkan dari aktivitas kritis no. 8 dan 10, dan 11 adalah mampu mendeteksi bias berdasarkan pada sudut pandang yang berbeda. Indikator yang diturunkan dari aktivitas kritis no. 5 dan 9 adalah mampu menentukan akibat dari suatu pernyataan yang diambil sebagai suatu keputusan.
Beyer (dalam Hassoubah, 2004) mengatakan bahwa keterampilan berpikir kritis meliputi beberapa kemampuan sebagai berikut :
(1) Menentukan kredibilitas suatu sumber.
(2). Membedakan antara yang relevan dari yang tidak relevan.
(3). Membedakan fakta dari penilaian.
(4). Mengidentifikasi dan mengevaluasi asumsi yang tidak terucapkan.
(5). Mengidentifikasi bias yang ada.
(6). Mengidentifikasi sudut pandang.
(7). Mengevaluasi bukti yang ditawarkan untuk mendukung pengakuan.
Sementara itu Ellis (dalam Rosyada, 2004) mengemukakan bahwa
keterampilan berpikir kritis meliputi kemampuan-kemampuan sebagai berikut :
(1). Mampu membedakan antara fakta yang bisa diverifikasi dengan tuntutan nilai.
(2). Mampu membedakan antara informasi, alasan, dan tuntutan-tuntutan yang relevan dengan yang tidak relevan.
(3). Mampu menetapkan fakta yang akurat.
(4). Mampu menetapkan sumber yang memiliki kredibilitas.
(5). Mampu mengidentifikasi tuntutan dan argumen-argumen yang ambiguistik.
(6). Mampu mengidentifikasi asumsi-asumsi yang tidak diungkapkan.
(7). Mampu menditeksi bias.
(8). Mampu mengidentifikasi logika-logika yang keliru.
(9). Mampu mengenali logika yang tidak konsisten.
(10). Mampu menetapkan argumentasi atau tuntutan yang paling kuat.
Sementara itu Ellis (dalam Rosyada, 2004) mengemukakan bahwa
keterampilan berpikir kritis meliputi kemampuan-kemampuan sebagai berikut :
(1). Mampu membedakan antara fakta yang bisa diverifikasi dengan tuntutan nilai.
(2). Mampu membedakan antara informasi, alasan, dan tuntutan-tuntutan yang relevan dengan yang tidak relevan.
(3). Mampu menetapkan fakta yang akurat.
(4). Mampu menetapkan sumber yang memiliki kredibilitas.
(5). Mampu mengidentifikasi tuntutan dan argumen-argumen yang ambiguistik.
(6). Mampu mengidentifikasi asumsi-asumsi yang tidak diungkapkan.
(7). Mampu menditeksi bias.
(8). Mampu mengidentifikasi logika-logika yang keliru.
(9). Mampu mengenali logika yang tidak konsisten.
(10). Mampu menetapkan argumentasi atau tuntutan yang paling kuat.
Nickerson (dalam Schfersman,1991) seorang ahli dalam berpikir kritis menyampaikan ciri-ciri orang yang berpikir kritis dalam hal pengetahuan, kemampuan, sikap, dan kebiasaan dalam bertindak sebagai berikut:
(1). Menggunakan fakta-fakta secara mahir dan jujur.
(2). Mengorganisasi pikiran dan mengartikulasikannya dengan jelas, logis atau masuk akal.
(3) Membedakan antara kesimpulan yang didasarkan pada logika yang valid dengan logika yang tidak valid.
(4). Mengidentifikasi kecukupan data.
(5). Memahami perbedaan antara penalaran dan rasionalisasi.
(6). Mencoba untuk mengantisipasi kemungkinan konsekuensi dari berbagai
kegiatan.
(7). Memahami ide sesuai dengan tingkat keyakinannya.
(8). Melihat similiritas dan analogi secara tidak dangkal.
(9). Dapat belajar secara independen dan mempunyai perhatian yang tak kunjung hilang dalam bekerjanya.
(10). Menerapkan teknik problem solving dalam domain lain dari yang sudah dipelajarinya.
(11). Dapat menyusun representasi masalah secara informal ke dalam cara formal .
(12). Dapat menyatakan suatu argumen verbal yang tidak relevan dan mengungkapkan argumen yang esensial.
(13). Mempertanyakan suatu pandangan dan mempertanyakan implikasi dari suatu pandangan.
(14). Sensitif terhadap perbedaan antara validitas dan intensitas dari suatu kepercayaan dengan validitas dan intensitas yang dipegangnya.
(15). Menyadari bahwa fakta dan pemahaman seseorang selalu terbatas, banyak fakta yang harus dijelaskan dengan sikap non inquiri.
(16). Mengenali kemungkinan keliru dari suatu pendapat, kemungkinan bias dalam pendapat, dan mengenali bahaya dari pembobotan fakta menurut pilihan pribadi.
Selain itu, Gokhale (1995) dalam penelitiannya yang berjudul Collaborative Learning Enhances Critical Thinking menyatakan bahwa yang dimaksud dengan soal berpikir kritis adalah soal yang melibatkan analisis, sintesis, dan evaluasi dari suatu konsep. Cotton (1991), menyatakan bahwa berpikir kritis disebut juga berpikir logis dan berpikir analitis. Selanjutnya menurut Langrehr (2006), untuk melatih berpikir kritis siswa harus didorong untuk menjawab pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang berkaitan dengan hal-hal sebagai berikut : (1) Menentukan konsekuensi dari suatu keputusan atau suatu kejadian; (2) Mengidentifikasi asumsi yang digunakan dalam suatu pernyataan; (3) Merumuskan pokok-popok permasalahan; (4) Menemukan adanya bias berdasarkan pada sudut pandang yang berbeda; (5) Mengungkapkan penyebab suatu kejadian; (6) Memilih fakor-faktor yang men.dukung terhadap suatu keputusan
(Kemampuan berpikir kritis dan kreatif, file.upi.edu/ai.php?…File%2024%20Kemampuan%20Berpikir%20Kritis%20dan%20Kreatif%20…diakses pada tanggal 14 September 2010)
Dari gambaran ini dapat dilihat bahwa berfikir pada dasarnya adalah proses psikologis. Kemampuan berfikir pada manusia alamiah sifatnya. Manusia yang lahir dalam keadaan normal akan dengan sendirinya memiliki kemampuan ini dengan tingkat yang relatif berbeda. Jika demikian, yang perlu diupayakan dalam proses pembelajaran adalah mengembangkan kemampuan ini, dan bukannya melemahkannya. Para pendidik yang memiliki kecendrungan untuk memberikan penjelasan yang “selengkapnya” tentang satu material pembelajaran akan cendrung melemahkan kemampuan subjek didik untuk berfikir. Sebaliknya, para pendidik yang lebih memusatkan pembelajarannya pada pemberian pengertian-pengertian atau konsep-konsep kunci yang fungsional akan mendorong subjek didiknya mengembangkan kemampuan berfikir mereka. Pembelajaran seperti ini akan menghadirkan tentangan psikologi bagi subjek didik untuk merumuskan kesimpulan-kesimpulannya secara mandiri.Tujuan berpikir adalah memecahkan permasalahan tersebut. Karena itu sering dikemukakan bahwa berpikir itu adalah merupakan aktifitas psikis yang intentional, berpikir tentang sesuatu. Di dalam pemecahan masalah tersebut, orang menghubungkan satu hal dengan hal yang lain hingga dapat mendapatkan pemecahan masalah.
B. Berpikir kreatif
Menurut Langrehr (2006), untuk melatih berpikir kreatif siswa harus didorong untuk menjawab pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang berkaitan dengan hal-hal sebagai berikut :
Membuat kombinasi dari beberapa bagian sehingga terbentuk hal yang baru; (2) Menggunakan ciri-ciri acak dari suatu benda sehingga terjadi perubahan dari desain yang sudah ada menjadi desain yang baru; (3) Mengeliminasi suatu bagian dari sesuatu hal sehingga diperoleh sesuatu hal yang baru; (4) Memikirkan kegunaan alternatif dari sesuatu hal sehingga diperoleh kegunaan yang baru; (5) Menyusun ide-ide yang berlawanan dengan ide-ide yang sudah biasa digunakan orang sehingga diperoleh ide-ide baru; (6) Menentukan kegunaan bentuk ekstrim dari suatu benda sehingga ditemukan kegunaan baru dari benda tersebut
Selanjutnya menurut Alvino (dalam Cotton, 1991), kreatif adalah melakukan suatu kegiatan yang ditandai oleh empat komponen, yaitu : fluency (menurunkan banyak ide), flexibility (mengubah perspektif dengan mudah), originality (menyusun sesuatu yang baru), dan elaboration (mengembangkan ide lain dari suatu ide).
Rincian cirri-ciri dari fluency, flexibility, originality, dan elaboration dikemukan oleh Munandar (1999), ciri-ciri fluency diantaranya adalah: (1) Mencetuskan banyak ide, banyak jawaban, banyak penyelesaian masalah, banyak pertanyaan dengan lancar; (2) Memberikan banyak cara atau saran untuk melakukan berbagai hal; (3) Selalu memikirkan lebih dari satu jawaban. Ciri-ciri flexibility diantaranya adalah : (1) Menghasilkan gagasan, jawaban, atau pertanyaan yang bervariasi, dapat melihat suatu masalah dari sudut pandang yang berbeda-beda; (2) Mencari banyak alternatif atau arah yang berbeda-beda; (4) Mampu mengubah cara pendekatan atau cara pemikiran. Ciri-ciri originality diantaranya adalah : (1) Mampu melahirkan ungkapan yang baru dan unik; (2) Memikirkan cara yang tidak lazim untuk mengungkapkan diri; (3) Mampu membuat kombinasi-kombinasi yang tidak lazim dari bagian-bagian atau unsur-unsur. Ciri-ciri elaboration diantarnya adalah : (1) Mampu memperkaya dan mengembangkan suatu gagasan atau produk; (2) Menambah atau memperinci detil-detil dari suatu obyek, gagasan, atau situasi sehingga menjadi lebih menarik.
(Kemampuan berpikir kritis dan kreatif, file.upi.edu/ai.php?…File%2024%20Kemampuan%20Berpikir%20Kritis%20dan%20Kreatif%20…diakses pada tanggal 14 September 2010).
Pada dasarnya hidup ini adalah memecahkan masalah. Hal ini memerlukan kemampuan berpikir kritis dan kreatif. Kritis untuk menganalisis masalah; dan kreatif untuk melahirkan alternatif pemecahan masalah. Kedua jenis berpikir tersebut, kritis dan kreatif, berasal dari rasa ingin tahu dan imajinasi yang keduanya ada pada diri anak sejak lahir. Oleh karena itu, tugas guru adalah mengembangkannya, antara lain dengan sering-sering memberikan tugas atau mengajukan pertanyaan yang terbuka. Pertanyaan yang dimulai dengan kata-kata “Apa yang terjadi jika …” lebih baik daripada yang dimulai dengan kata-kata “Apa, berapa, kapan”, yang umumnya tertutup (jawaban betul hanya satu).
Menurut Webster’s New Encyclopedic All New 1994 Edition “kritis” (critical) adalah “Using or involving careful judgement” sehingga “berpikir kritis” dapat diartikan sebagai berpikir yang membutuhkan kecermatan dalam membuat keputusan. Pengertian yang lain diberikan oleh Ennis (1996) yaitu: berpikir kritis merupakan sebuah proses yang bertujuan untuk membuat keputusan yang masuk akal mengenai apa yang kita percayai dan apa yang kita kerjakan. Berpikir kritis merupakan salah satu tahapan berpikir tingkat tinggi. Costa (Liliasari, 2000: 136) mengkategorikan proses berpikir kompleks atau berpikir tingkat tinggi kedalam empat kelompok yang meliputi pemecahan masalah (problem solving), pengambilan keputusan (decision making), berpikir kritis (critical thinking), dan berpikir kreatif (creative thinking) (diakses tanggal 5 September 2010 melalui http://www.khusnuridlo.com/2010/07/pengertian-berpikir.html).
Berpikir kritis diperlukan dalam kehidupan di masyarakat, karena dalam kehidupan di masyarakat manusia selalu dihadapkan pada permasalahan yang memerlukan pemecahan. Untuk memecahkan suatu permasalahan tentu diperlukan data-data agar dapat dibuat keputusan yang logis, dan untuk membuat suatu keputusan yang tepat, diperlukan kemampuan berpikir kritis yang baik.
Karena begitu pentingnya, berpikir kritis pada umumnya dianggap sebagai tujuan utama dari pembelajaran. Selain itu berpikir kritis memainkan peranan yang penting dalam banyak macam pekerjaan, khususnya pekerjaan-pekerjaan yang memerlukan ketelitian dan berpikir analitis (Watson dan Glaser (1980:1)). Pendapat tersebut sesuai pula dengan tujuan pembelajaran matematika di jenjang pendidikan dasar dan pendidikan menengah seperti tertuang baik dalam Kurikulum 1994 maupun Kurikulum 2004, yang bertujuan agar siswa dapat menggunakan matematika sebagai cara bernalar (berpikir logis, kritis, sistematis, dan objektif) yang dapat digunakan dalam menyelesaikan masalah, baik masalah dalam kehidupan sehari-hari maupun dalam mempelajari berbagai ilmu pengetahuan(diakses tanggal 5 September 2010 melalui http://www.khusnuridlo.com/2010/07/pengertian-berpikir.html).
Menurut Krulik dan Rudnick (1995: 2) penalaran meliputi berpikir dasar (basic thinking), berpikir kritis (critical thinking), dan berpikir kreatif (creative thinking). Terdapat delapan buah deskripsi yang dapat dihubungkan dengan berpikir kritis, yaitu menguji, menghubungkan, dan mengevaluasi semua aspek dari sebuah situasi atau masalah, memfokuskan pada bagian dari sebuah situasi atau masalah, mengumpulkan dan mengorganisasikan informasi, memvalidasi dan menganalisis informasi, mengingat dan menganalisis informasi, menentukan masuk akal tidaknya sebuah jawaban, menarik kesimpulan yang valid, memiliki sifat analitis dan refleksif.
Beberapa kemampuan yang dikaitkan dengan konsep berpikir kritis, adalah kemampuan-kemampuan untuk memahami masalah, menyeleksi informasi yang penting untuk menyelesaikan masalah, memahami asumsi-asumsi, merumuskan dan menyeleksi hipotesis yang relevan, serta menarik kesimpulan yang valid dan menentukan kevalidan dari kesimpulan-kesimpulan (Dressel dan Mayhew) (Watson dan Glaser, 1980:1).(diakses tanggal 5 September 2010 melalui http://www.khusnuridlo.com/2010/07/pengertian-berpikir.html)
Namun demikian, sesungguhnya kemampuan berpikir kreatif pada dasarnya dimiliki semua orang. Berpikir kreatif adalah kemampuan untuk menciptakan gagasan-gagasan baru dan orisinil. Bahkan pada orang yang merasa tidak mampu menciptakan ide baru pun sebenarnya bisa berpikir secara kreatif, asalkan dilatih(kuliah.dagdigdug.com/2008/07/06/berpikir-kreatif/diakses tanggal 25 Agustus 2010).

C. Pengembangan kurikulum
Pengembangan kurikulum adalah istilah yang komprehensif, didalamnya mencakup: perencanaan, penerapan dan evaluasi. Perencanaan kurikulum adalah langkah awal membangun kurikulum ketika pekerja kurikulum membuat keputusan dan mengambil tindakan untuk menghasilkan perencanaan yang akan digunakan oleh guru dan peserta didik. Penerapan Kurikulum atau biasa disebut juga implementasi kurikulum berusaha mentransfer perencanaan kurikulum ke dalam tindakan operasional. Evaluasi kurikulum merupakan tahap akhir dari pengembangan kurikulum untuk menentukan seberapa besar hasil-hasil pembelajaran, tingkat ketercapaian program-program yang telah direncanakan, dan hasil-hasil kurikulum itu sendiri.
Nana Syaodih Sukmadinata (1997) mengetengahkan prinsip-prinsip pengembangan kurikulum yang dibagi ke dalam dua kelompok : (1) prinsip – prinsip umum : relevansi, fleksibilitas, kontinuitas, praktis, dan efektivitas; (2) prinsip-prinsip khusus : prinsip berkenaan dengan tujuan pendidikan, prinsip berkenaan dengan pemilihan isi pendidikan, prinsip berkenaan dengan pemilihan proses belajar mengajar, prinsip berkenaan dengan pemilihan media dan alat pelajaran, dan prinsip berkenaan dengan pemilihan kegiatan penilaian. Sedangkan Asep Herry Hernawan dkk (2002) mengemukakan lima prinsip dalam pengembangan kurikulum, yaitu :
1. Prinsip relevansi; secara internal bahwa kurikulum memiliki relevansi di antara komponen-komponen kurikulum (tujuan, bahan, strategi, organisasi dan evaluasi). Sedangkan secara eksternal bahwa komponen-komponen tersebutmemiliki relevansi dengan tuntutan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi (relevansi epistomologis), tuntutan dan potensi peserta didik (relevansi psikologis) serta tuntutan dan kebutuhan perkembangan masyarakat (relevansi sosilogis).
2. Prinsip fleksibilitas; dalam pengembangan kurikulum mengusahakan agar yang dihasilkan memiliki sifat luwes, lentur dan fleksibel dalam pelaksanaannya, memungkinkan terjadinya penyesuaian-penyesuaian berdasarkan situasi dan kondisi tempat dan waktu yang selalu berkembang, serta kemampuan dan latar bekang peserta didik.
3. Prinsip kontinuitas; yakni adanya kesinambungandalam kurikulum, baik secara vertikal, maupun secara horizontal. Pengalaman-pengalaman belajar yang disediakan kurikulum harus memperhatikan kesinambungan, baik yang di dalam tingkat kelas, antar jenjang pendidikan, maupun antara jenjang pendidikan dengan jenis pekerjaan.
4. Prinsip efisiensi; yakni mengusahakan agar dalam pengembangan kurikulum dapat mendayagunakan waktu, biaya, dan sumber-sumber lain yang ada secara optimal, cermat dan tepat sehingga hasilnya memadai.
5. Prinsip efektivitas; yakni mengusahakan agar kegiatan pengembangan kurikulum mencapai tujuan tanpa kegiatan yang mubazir, baik secara kualitas maupun kuantitas.
Terkait dengan pengembangan Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan, terdapat sejumlah prinsip-prinsip yang harus dipenuhi, yaitu :
1. Berpusat pada potensi, perkembangan, kebutuhan, dan kepentingan peserta didik dan lingkungannya. Kurikulum dikembangkan berdasarkan prinsip bahwa peserta didik memiliki posisi sentral untuk mengembangkan kompetensinya agar menjadi manusia yang beriman dan bertakwa kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, berakhlak mulia, sehat, berilmu, cakap, kreatif, mandiri dan menjadi warga negara yang demokratis serta bertanggung jawab. Untuk mendukung pencapaian tujuan tersebut pengembangan kompetensi peserta didik disesuaikan dengan potensi, perkembangan, kebutuhan, dan kepentingan peserta didik serta tuntutan lingkungan.
2. Kurikulum dikembangkan dengan memperhatikan keragaman karakteristik peserta didik, kondisi daerah, dan jenjang serta jenis pendidikan, tanpa membedakan agama, suku, budaya dan adat istiadat, serta status sosial ekonomi dan gender. Kurikulum meliputi substansi komponen muatan wajib kurikulum, muatan lokal, dan pengembangan diri secara terpadu, serta disusun dalam keterkaitan dan kesinambungan yang bermakna dan tepat antarsubstansi.
3. Tanggap terhadap perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi, dan seni. Kurikulum dikembangkan atas dasar kesadaran bahwa ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi dan seni berkembang secara dinamis, dan oleh karena itu semangat dan isi kurikulum mendorong peserta didik untuk mengikuti dan memanfaatkan secara tepat perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi, dan seni.
4. Relevan dengan kebutuhan kehidupan. Pengembangan kurikulum dilakukan dengan melibatkan pemangku kepentingan (stakeholders) untuk menjamin relevansi pendidikan dengan kebutuhan kehidupan, termasuk di dalamnya kehidupan kemasyarakatan, dunia usaha dan dunia kerja. Oleh karena itu, pengembangan keterampilan pribadi, keterampilan berpikir, keterampilan sosial, keterampilan akademik, dan keterampilan vokasional merupakan keniscayaan.
5. Menyeluruh dan berkesinambungan. Substansi kurikulum mencakup keseluruhan dimensi kompetensi, bidang kajian keilmuan dan mata pelajaran yang direncanakan dan disajikan secara berkesinambungan antarsemua jenjang pendidikan.
6. Belajar sepanjang hayat. Kurikulum diarahkan kepada proses pengembangan, pembudayaan dan pemberdayaan peserta didik yang berlangsung sepanjang hayat. Kurikulum mencerminkan keterkaitan antara unsur-unsur pendidikan formal, nonformal dan informal, dengan memperhatikan kondisi dan tuntutan lingkungan yang selalu berkembang serta arah pengembangan manusia seutuhnya.
7. Seimbang antara kepentingan nasional dan kepentingan daerah. Kurikulum dikembangkan dengan memperhatikan kepentingan nasional dan kepentingan daerah untuk membangun kehidupan bermasyarakat, berbangsa dan bernegara. Kepentingan nasional dan kepentingan daerah harus saling mengisi dan memberdayakan sejalan dengan motto Bhineka Tunggal Ika dalam kerangka Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia.
Pengembangan kurikulum dapat dilakukan melalui dua pendekatan yaitu : (1) pendekatan top-down the administrative model dan (2) the grass root model.
1. The administrative model;
Model ini merupakan model pengembangan kurikulum yang paling lama dan paling banyak digunakan. Gagasan pengembangan kurikulum datang dari para administrator pendidikan dan menggunakan prosedur administrasi. Dengan wewenang administrasinya, membentuk suatu Komisi atau Tim Pengarah pengembangan kurikulum. Anggotanya, terdiri dari pejabat di bawahnya, para ahli pendidikan, ahli kurikulum, ahli disiplin ilmu, dan para tokoh dari dunia kerja dan perusahaan. Tugas tim ini adalah merumuskan konsep-konsep dasar, landasan-landasan, kebijaksanaan dan strategi utama dalam pengembangan kurikulum. Selanjutnya administrator membentuk Tim Kerja terdiri dari para ahli pendidikan, ahli kurikulum, ahli disiplin ilmu dari perguruan tinggi, dan guru-guru senior, yang bertugas menyusun kurikulum yang sesungguhnya yang lebih operasional menjabarkan konsep-konsep dan kebijakan dasar yang telah digariskan oleh Tim pengarah, seperti merumuskan tujuan-tujuan yang lebih operasional, memilih sekuens materi, memilih strategi pembelajaran dan evaluasi, serta menyusun pedoman-pedoman pelaksanaan kurikulum bagi guru-guru. Setelah Tim Kerja selesai melaksanakan tugasnya, hasilnya dikaji ulang oleh Tim Pengarah serta para ahli lain yang berwenang atau pejabat yang kompeten. Setelah mendapatkan beberapa penyempurnaan dan dinilai telah cukup baik, administrator pemberi tugas menetapkan berlakunya kurikulum tersebut. Karena datangnya dari atas, maka model ini disebut juga model Top – Down. Dalam pelaksanaannya, diperlukan monitoring, pengawasan dan bimbingan. Setelah berjalan beberapa saat perlu dilakukan evaluasi.
2. The grass root model;
Model pengembangan ini merupakan lawan dari model pertama. Inisiatif dan upaya pengembangan kurikulum, bukan datang dari atas tetapi dari bawah, yaitu guru-guru atau sekolah. Model pengembangan kurikulum yang pertama, digunakan dalam sistem pengelolaan pendidikan/kurikulum yang bersifat sentralisasi, sedangkan model grass roots akan berkembang dalam sistem pendidikan yang bersifat desentralisasi. Dalam model pengembangan yang bersifat grass roots seorang guru, sekelompok guru atau keseluruhan guru di suatu sekolah mengadakan upaya pengembangan kurikulum. Pengembangan atau penyempurnaan ini dapat berkenaan dengan suatu komponen kurikulum, satu atau beberapa bidang studi ataupun seluruh bidang studi dan seluruh komponen kurikulum. Apabila kondisinya telah memungkinkan, baik dilihat dari kemampuan guru-guru, fasilitas biaya maupun bahan-bahan kepustakaan, pengembangan kurikulum model grass root tampaknya akan lebih baik. Hal itu didasarkan atas pertimbangan bahwa guru adalah perencana, pelaksana, dan juga penyempurna dari pengajaran di kelasnya. Dialah yang paling tahu kebutuhan kelasnya, oleh karena itu dialah yang paling kompeten menyusun kurikulum bagi kelasnya. Pengembangan kurikulum yang bersifat grass roots, mungkin hanya berlaku untuk bidang studi tertentu atau sekolah tertentu, tetapi mungkin pula dapat digunakan untuk seluruh bidang studi pada sekolah atau daerah lain. Pengembangan kurikulum yang bersifat desentralistik dengan model grass rootsnya, memungkinkan terjadinya kompetisi dalam meningkatkan mutu dan sistem pendidikan, yang pada gilirannya akan melahirkan manusia-manusia yang lebih mandiri dan kreatif.
Terkait dengan pengembangan Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan, tampaknya lebih cenderung dilakukan dengan menggunakan pendekatan the grass-root model. Kendati demikian, agar pengembangan kurikulum dapat berjalan efektif tentunya harus ditopang oleh kesiapan sumber daya, terutama sumber daya manusia yang tersedia di sekolah (akhmadsudrajat.wordpress.com/…/model-pengembangan-kurikulum/).
Berdasarkan panduan pengembangan pembuatan RPP untuk mengimplementasikan pogram pembelajaran yang sudah dituangkan di dalam silabus, guru harus menyusun Rencana Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran (RPP). RPP merupakan pegangan bagi guru dalam
melaksanakan pembelajaran baik di kelas, laboratorium, dan/atau lapangan
untuk setiap Kompetensi dasar. Oleh karena itu, apa yang tertuang di dalam
RPP memuat hal-hal yang langsung berkait dengan aktivitas pembelajaran
dalam upaya pencapaian penguasaan suatu Kompetensi Dasar.Dalam menyusun RPP guru harus mencantumkan Standar Kompetensi yang memayungi Kompetensi Dasar yang akan disusun dalam RPP-nya. Di dalam RPP secara rinci harus dimuat Tujuan Pembelajaran,Materi Pembelajaran, Metode Pembelajaran, Langkah-langkah Kegiatan pembelajaran, Sumber Belajar, dan Penilaian.
RPP dapat didefenisikan rencana yang menggambarkan prosedur dan pengorganisasian pembelajaran untuk mencapai suatu kompetensi dasar yang ditetapkan dalam Standar Isi yang dijabarkan dalam silabus(www.slideshare.net/…/4-pengembangan-rpp – Amerika Serikat).
Sesuai dengan Permendiknas Nomor 41 Tahun 2007 tentang Standar Proses dijelaskan bahwa RPP dijabarkan dari silabus untuk mengarahkan ke¬giatan belajar peserta didik dalam upaya mencapai KD. Setiap guru pada satuan pendidikan berkewajiban menyusun RPP secara lengkap dan sistematis agar pembelajaran berlangsung secara interaktif, inspiratif, menyenangkan, menantang, memotivasi peserta didik untuk berpartisipasi aktif, serta memberikan ruang yang cukup bagi prakarsa, kreativitas, dan kemandirian sesuai dengan bakat, minat, dan perkembangan fisik serta psikologis peserta didik.
Metode pembelajaran, digunakan oleh guru untuk mewujudkan suasana belajar dan proses pembela¬jaran agar peserta didik mencapai kompetensi dasar atau seperangkat indikator yang telah ditetapkan. Pemi¬lihan metode pembelajaran disesuaikan dengan situ¬asi dan kondisi peserta didik, serta karakteristik dari setiap indikator dan kompetensi yang hendak dicapai pada setiap mata pelajaran
PRINSIP-PRINSIP PENYUSUNAN RPP
- Memperhatikan perbedaan individu peserta didik
- RPP disusun dengan memperhatikan perbedaan jenis kelamin, kemampuan awal, tingkat intelektual, minat, motivasi belajar, bakat, potensi, kemampuan sosial, emosi, gaya belajar, kebutuhan khusus, kecepatan belajar, latar belakang budaya, norma, nilai, dan/atau lingkungan peserta didik.
- Mendorong partisipasi aktif peserta didik
- Proses pembelajaran dirancang dengan berpusat pada peserta didik untuk mendorong motivasi, minat, krea¬tivitas, inisiatif, inspirasi, kemandirian, dan semangat belajar
- Mengembangkan budaya membaca dan menulis Proses pembelajaran dirancang untuk mengembang¬kan kegemaran membaca, pemahaman beragam ba¬caan, dan berekspresi dalam berbagai bentuk tulisan
- Memberikan umpan balik dan tindak lanjut
- RPP memuat rancangan program pemberian umpan balik positif, penguatan, pengayaan, dan remedi.
- RPP disusun dengan memperhatikan keterkaitan dan keterpaduan antara SK, KD, materi pembelajaran, ke¬giatan pembelajaran, indikator pencapaian kompeten¬si, penilaian, dan sumber belajar dalam satu keutuhan pengalaman belajar. RPP disusun dengan mengako¬modasikan pembelajaran tematik, keterpaduan lintas mata pelajaran, lintas aspek belajar, dan keragaman budaya.
RPP disusun dengan mempertimbangkan penerapan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi secara terintegra¬si, sistematis, dan efektif sesuai dengan situasi dan kondisi. (wwwnuansamasel.blogspot.com/…/panduan-pengembangan-rpp.html).
D. Pendekatan, Strategi, Metode, Teknik, dan Model Pembelajaran
Pendekatan pembelajaran dapat diartikan sebagai titik tolak atau sudut pandang kita terhadap proses pembelajaran, yang merujuk pada pandangan tentang terjadinya suatu proses yang sifatnya masih sangat umum, di dalamnya mewadahi, menginsiprasi, menguatkan, dan melatari metode pembelajaran dengan cakupan teoretis tertentu. Dilihat dari pendekatannya, pembelajaran terdapat dua jenis pendekatan, yaitu: (1) pendekatan pembelajaran yang berorientasi atau berpusat pada siswa (student centered approach) dan (2) pendekatan pembelajaran yang berorientasi atau berpusat pada guru (teacher centered approach). Dari pendekatan pembelajaran yang telah ditetapkan selanjutnya diturunkan ke dalam strategi pembelajaran.
Kemp (Wina Senjaya, 2008) mengemukakan bahwa strategi pembelajaran adalah suatu kegiatan pembelajaran yang harus dikerjakan guru dan siswa agar tujuan pembelajaran dapat dicapai secara efektif dan efisien. mengutip pemikiran J. R David, Wina Senjaya (2008) menyebutkan bahwa dalam strategi pembelajaran terkandung makna perencanaan. Artinya, bahwa strategi pada dasarnya masih bersifat konseptual tentang keputusan-keputusan yang akan diambil dalam suatu pelaksanaan pembelajaran.
Metode pembelajaran dapat diartikan sebagai cara yang digunakan untuk mengimplementasikan rencana yang sudah disusun dalam bentuk kegiatan nyata dan praktis untuk mencapai tujuan pembelajaran.
Teknik pembelajaran dapat diatikan sebagai cara yang dilakukan seseorang dalam mengimplementasikan suatu metode secara spesifik.
Taktik pembelajaran merupakan gaya seseorang dalam melaksanakan metode atau teknik pembelajaran tertentu yang sifatnya individual.
Model pembelajaran pada dasarnya merupakan bentuk pembelajaran yang tergambar dari awal sampai akhir yang disajikan secara khas oleh guru. Dengan kata lain, model pembelajaran merupakan bungkus atau bingkai dari penerapan suatu pendekatan, metode, dan teknik pembelajaran.

Desain pembelajaran menunjuk kepada kita cara-cara merencanakan suatu sistem lingkungan belajar tertentu setelah ditetapkan strategi pembelajaran tertentu. Jika dianalogikan dengan pembuatan rumah, strategi membicarakan tentang berbagai kemungkinan tipe atau jenis rumah yang hendak dibangun (rumah joglo, rumah gadang, rumah modern, dan sebagainya), masing-masing akan menampilkan kesan dan pesan yang berbeda dan unik. Sedangkan desain adalah menetapkan cetak biru (blue print) rumah yang akan dibangun beserta bahan-bahan yang diperlukan dan urutan-urutan langkah konstruksinya, maupun kriteria penyelesaiannya, mulai dari tahap awal sampai dengan tahap akhir, setelah ditetapkan tipe rumah yang akan dibangun(akhmadsudrajat.wordpress.com/…/pendekatan-strategi-metode-teknik-dan-model-pembelajaran/).
Bab III
Penutup
A.Kesimpulan
Berdasarkan uraian di atas, bahwa untuk dapat melaksanakan tugasnya secara profesional, seorang guru dituntut dapat memahami dan memliki keterampilan yang memadai dalam mengembangkan berbagai model pembelajaran yang efektif, kreatif dan menyenangkan, sebagaimana diisyaratkan dalam Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan agar harapan kita untuk meningkatkan siswa yang berpikir krtis dan kreatif.
B.Saran
Guru pun dapat secara kreatif mencobakan dan mengembangkan model pembelajaran tersendiri yang khas, sesuai dengan kondisi nyata di tempat kerja masing-masing, sehingga pada gilirannya akan muncul model-model pembelajaran versi guru yang bersangkutan, yang tentunya semakin memperkaya khazanah model pembelajaran yang telah ada dan dapat mendukung meningkatnya siswa berpikir kritis dan kreatif.
DAFTAR PUSTAKA
akhmadsudrajat.wordpress.com/…/pendekatan-strategi-metode-teknik-dan-model-pembelajaran
akhmadsudrajat.wordpress.com/…/model-pengembangan-kurikulum
kuliah.dagdigdug.com/2008/07/06/berpikir-kreatif/diakses tanggal 25 Agustus 2010
Kemampuan berpikir kritis dan kreatif,file.upi.edu/ai.php?…File%2024%20Kemampuan%20Berpikir%20Kritis%20dan%20Kreatif%20…diakses pada tanggal 14 September 2010
kemampuan berpikir kritis, kreatif dan proaktif,2008,diakes tanggal 16 September 2010 melalui http://www.smartfm.co.id/
wwwnuansamasel.blogspot.com/…/panduan-pengembangan-rpp.html
http://www.slideshare.net/…/4-pengembangan-rpp – Amerika Serikat
http://www.khusnuridlo.com/2010/07/pengertian-berpikir.html diakses tanggal 5 September 2010

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MAKNA GAMES DI BIMTEK RSBI JULI 2010

Sesuatu itu akan berhasil bila punya landasan yang kokoh. Bila dasarnya tidak kuat hasilnya akan mudah rubuh. Begitu juga bila kita mendidik anak maupun siswa di sekolah, harus ada dasar yang kuat sehingga anak tidak mudah dipengaruhi lingkungan. Modal utama berasal dari rumah terutama penanaman iman dan taqwa. Ini ditampilkan pada games ESQ saat BIMTEK RSBI di Mars Cisarua Bogor(7 – 12 Juli 2010)



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Kalau anak-anak kota pulang kampung pasti tujuannya mandi sungai
Beginilah kalau mereka pulang kampung asyik…..sekali menikmati jernihnya dan kedangkalan air sungai pasir bara di batu pulut tapanuli selatan alam yang teduh dan sejuk tak dijumpai mereka di kota wajar….kalau mereka sangat menikmatinya. hai……lupa pakai baju tuh…..woi……senangnya…….

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lesson plan human respiratory system

LESSON PLAN

School : Junior High School
Subject : Science-Biology
Grade/semester : VIII /First
Chapter : 1.5. Human Respiratory System
Time Allocation : 4 X 40 minutes

A. STANDARD COMPETENCE
1. Understanding the various system in human life
B. BASIC COMPETENCE
1.5. To describe human respiratory system and it’s relationship and health
C. INDICATOR
1. Explain the organs that construct the human respiratory system and it’s function
2. Compare inspiration and expiration process
3. Compare breast breathing and abdominal breathing
4. Explain the human respiratory system disorder in our daily life and how to fix it
C. LEARNING OBJECTIVES
The students are able to:

1 Explain the organs that construct the human respiratory system and it’s function (religious, having healthy, curious)
2. Compare inspiration and expiration process (honesty and curious)
3. Compare breast breathing and abdominal breathing (religious)
4. Explain the human respiratory system disorder in our daily life and how to fix it (honesty and confident)

D. LEARNING MATERIALS
1. The organs that construct the human respiratory system and it’s function.
2. The inspiration and expiration process.
3. The breast breathing and abdominal breathing.
4. The human respiratory system disorder in our daily life

E. LEARNING METHOD / LEARNING MODEL
MODEL:
§ Cooperative learning
§ Direct instruction
METHOD:
§ Information discussion
§ Experiment

F. LEARNING ACTIVITIES
FIRST MEETING
a. Introduction
§ Motivation and apperception :
v How do you feel if we are in the closed room?( having healthy)
v What do we take out when we are breathing? (curious)
§ Prerequisite knowledge
v What do you know about respiration? (curious)
v What do you know about expiration process? (curious)
§ Experiment Pre-request
Be careful in conducting an experiment

b. Main Activities
· Student divided into six groups.
· student have seat in a group, one of the student in group take a materials to prepare an experiment and worksheet.
· The teacher presenting information about the organs that contract the human respiratory system and its function.(curious)
· Student performance an experiment to observe thing that contained in expiration.(curious, honesty, thinking logically, critically, creatively, innovatively, autonomy, confident, disciplined)
· Student performance an experiment to observe a n inspiration and expiration process (curious, honesty, thinking logically, critically, creatively, innovatively, autonomy, confident, disciplined)
· The teacher presenting information about compare inspiration and expiration process.(social and environmental care, religious)
· The teacher ascertains that all students already know the correct information (confident).

c. Closing Activities
· The teacher evaluation students with giving an oral question around the objective to reach for.
· The teacher guides student to make a conclusion about the lesson.
· The teacher reminds student to prepare an experiment for the next meeting.

SECOND MEETING
a. Introduction
§ motivation and apperception :
v Motivation
- The consequences of smoking (having healthy)
v Prerequisite knowledge
- The substance contained of cigarette.
v Presenting learning material last week.
§ Experiment pre requisite
- Be careful in conduction an experiment
b. Main Activities
§ Student divided into six groups.
§ student have seat in a group, one of the student in group take a materials to prepare an experiment and worksheet.
§ Student performance an experiment to observe a breast breathing and abdominal breathing. (curious, honesty, thinking logically, creatively, confident, disciplined)
§ Discussion about the human respiratory system disorder in our daily life and how to fix it(democracy, responsible, courteous)
§ Each group going around the class to give an argument each other (appreciation of diversity)
§ The teacher ascertains that the entire group knows the correct answer.

c. Closure
§ Teacher evaluation student with giving an oral question around the objectives to reach for.
§ give reward for student or group which presents a good performance
§ Teacher guides student to make a conclusion about the lesson.

G. LEARNING SOURCES
a. Student book from directorate of Junior High School Development .
b. Student work sheet.
c. Experimental equipment and materials.
d. Reference book.
e. Charta, torso.

H. ASSESSMENT

Indicators of Achievement Assessment
Technique Types of Instrument Example of items
To explaining the organs that construct the human respiratory system and its function
(religious,
having healthy, honesty, confident)

To compare inspiration and expiration process
( honesty, thinking logically, critically, creatively, innovatively)

To compare breast breathing and
abdominal
breathing
(honesty,
responsible)

To mention the human respiratory system disorder in our daily life and how to fix it honesty,
responsible)
Written test

Written test

Written test

Paper test Multiple choice

essay

essay

portofolio Gas exchange with diffusion happen in…
a. alveolus c. broncus
c. trachea d. pulmo

make a scheme of inspiration and expiration process

Write down the various kind of respiration based on its method! explain

give two example of human respiratory disorder and how to fix it!

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